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2): 5–26. Encyclopedia of Arkansas For one thing, Sundown Town is the work of a promising young, local playwright in Cohea. ... Northwest Arkansas Newspapers LLC. Back in those days colored people were run out of Fouke, one was even hung from a large oak tree…. This is their story; it is the first book ever written on the topic.” — James W. Loewen. Jaspin, Elliot. I live in the midsouth which has a lot of sundown towns, particularly our side of Arkansas as well as majority of Mississippi. Some smaller communities in Arkansas may also have gotten rid of their African Americans after Brown. In the aftermath, Polk County’s black residents fled. Louisville: University Press of Colorado, 2019. “We have come to a parting of the way with the Negro,” he shouted. Additional support provided by the Arkansas Community Foundation. During this “Nadir of Race Relations,” lynchings peaked, and unions drove African Americans from such occupations as railroad fireman and meat cutter. Shirley Manning, a high school student there in 1960–61, describes the scene: “The local boys would threaten with words and knives Negroes who would come through town, and follow them to the outskirts of town shouting ‘better not let the sun set on your black ass in Mena, Arkansas,’ and they often ‘bumped’ the car with their bumper from behind. Leave your legacy with a planned gift that can help ensure quality materials, programming, and services for our libraries. The first time you log in to our catalog you will need to create an account. Print length. Research Collection. Top 10 biggest cities by population are Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville, Springdale, Jonesboro, North Little Rock, Conway, Rogers, Pine Bluff, and Bentonville while top ten largest cities by land area are Farmington, Greenwood, Osceola, Maumelle, Lowell, Highland, Cedarville, Wynne, Morrilton, and Plumerville. Especially if you have black or brown skin. • Bibbs, Rebecca (April 3, 2016). Generic astronomy calculator to calculate times for sunrise, sunset, moonrise, moonset for many cities, with daylight saving time and time zones taken in account. Sometimes entire counties went sundown, usually when their county seats did. Stay away from Harrison and Boone County Arkansas. For additional information: Other websites. The history of sundown towns—communities that for decades were "all white" on purpose—figures prominently in plays that opened this past month in two Southern states, Virginia and Arkansas. ———. http://sundown.afro.illinois.edu/sundowntownsshow.php?state=AR (accessed March 1, 2011). I was along in a car which did this, once, and saw it done more than once.”. Sundown towns have shown astonishing tenacity. Some multi-county areas also kept out African Americans. Sometimes entire counties went sundown, usually when their county seat did. Mena advertised what it had—“Cool Summers, Mild Winters”—and did not have —“No Blizzards, No Negroes.” In its 1907 Guide and Directory, Rogers competed by bragging about its “seven churches, two public schools, one Academy, one sanitorium” and noted, “Rogers has no Negroes or saloons.” Not to be outdone, nearby Siloam Springs (Benton County) claimed “Healing Waters, Beautiful Parks, Many Springs, Public Library,” alongside “No Malaria, No Mosquitoes, and No Negroes.” The pitch worked: a 1972 survey of Mountain Home (Baxter County) residents found many retirees from Northern cities who chose Mountain Home partly because it was all-white. Often, the expulsion of African Americans was forced. Special thanks to the Department of Arkansas Heritage.

“The Cotter Expulsion of 1906 and Limitations on Historical Inquiry.” ———. Instead, I have found more than 440 in Illinois and thousands across the United States. In the 2010 census, 0.2% of Mena's population was black. Sundown towns in the United States by state; History of racism in Arkansas ———. Sundown Towns are all-white communities, neighborhoods, or counties that exclude Blacks and other minorities through the use of discriminatory laws, harassment, and threats or use of violence. Rate and review titles you borrow and share your opinions on them. Simply go to krogercommunityrewards.com, click “Create an Account” to sign in, and select CALS Foundation as your organization to support. In Mena, African Americans did not even have to stop to get in trouble. The name derives from the posted and verbal warnings issued to Blacks that although they might be allowed to work or travel in a community during the daytime, they must leave by sundown. Ferguson, MO, was a sundown town between 1940 and 1960. For fifteen years after the 1964 Civil Rights Act, motels and restaurants in some sundown towns continued to exclude African Americans. If you would like to make a donation by check, print this donation form, fill it out and mail it with your check to: Central Arkansas Library System The name derives from the posted and verbal warnings issued to Blacks that although they might be allowed to work or travel in a community during the daytime, they must leave by sundown. They are not suspected sundown towns but are listed for other reasons. “Pulaski Heights: Early Suburban Development in Little Rock, Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 41 (Summer 1982): 129–145. In the early 1900s, for example, pioneering archaeologist Clarence Moore “dared not proceed beyond Lepanto” on the Little River, for fear of endangering his black crew members. Sundown Towns in Arkansas Dr. “If the brutal criminals of that race…. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Department of Sociology, 1973. No one will hire them.” Whites who might defy the ban face reprisals. Sundown towns in Arkansas range from hamlets like Alix to larger towns like Paragould (Greene County) and Springdale (Washington County). Additional support provided by the Arkansas Community Foundation. The term derives from the signs that some towns posted at their corporate limits with warnings such as, "Nigger, Don't Let the Sun Go Down On You in Hawthorne," to quote the anti-greeting at the edge of Hawthorne, Calif., a suburb of Los Angeles. Harrison remained a sundown town at least until 2002. KKK leaders still live in the Harrison area. Through this map, we can better comprehend what geographic regions most commonly hosted Sundown towns, and where our knowledge of this phenomena is less tangible. “‘…or Suffer the Consequences of Staying’: Terror and Racial Cleansing in Arkansas.” In Historicizing Fear: Ignorance, Vilification, and Othering, edited by Travis D. Boyce and Winsome Chunnu. Additional support provided by the Arkansas Humanities Council. In 1969, a choir from Southern Baptist College performed in Harrison. Sundown Towns. New York: The New Press, 2005. The city put up an almost life sized chalk statue of a colored man at the city limit line, he had an iron bar in one hand and was pointing out of town with the other hand. Rogers Historical Museum, Rogers, Arkansas. Historian Patrick Huber calls the expulsions by which Ozark communities became sundown towns “defining events in the history of their communities.” Nevertheless, despite that importance, or rather because of it, most sundown towns have kept hidden the means by which they became and stayed white. There are a total of 602 towns and cities in the state of Arkansas. ———. For another, it has local historical significance in that it is the story of an African American drifter from the early 1900’s who wanders into a small town in North Arkansas where black people were not welcome. Sundown towns are a hidden past of Northwest Arkansas some have chosen to forget but others remember firsthand. Independent sundown towns range in size from hamlets like Alix, Arkansas, population 185, to large cities like Appleton, Wisconsin, with 57,000 residents in 1970. For more information, contact 501-918-3025 or calsfoundation@cals.org. Stay away from Harrison and Boone County Arkansas. Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry: Sundown Towns; Review and feature article, Dallas Morning News Archived 2009-07-30 at the Wayback Machine; Interview with … Jones, Catherine Ponder. Entire counties went sundown, such as Boone, Clay, and Polk. One choir member was black, and a couple put her up for the night, “but we worried lest our house get blown up,” remembered the wife. Special thanks to the Department of Arkansas Heritage. Buried in the Bitter Waters: The Hidden History of Racial Cleansing in America. Share this: Tweet; ———. About 15,000 copies were printed each year.As the NAACP pushed for the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which outlawed racial discrimination, How far do you drive each day? Or, sign up for Kroger Rewards and a portion of your purchases at Kroger will be donated to the CALS Foundation. Rate and review titles you borrow and share your opinions on them. Harrison developed a large Ku Klux Klan (KKK) chapter that targeted striking railroad workers in the 1920s, hanging one from a railroad bridge in 1923 and escorting the rest to the Missouri line. A white mob then took him from jail, fractured his skull, shot him, and cut his throat. White Man’s Heaven: The Lynching and Expulsion of Blacks in the Southern Ozarks, 1894–1909. When I began this research, I expected to find about 10 sundown towns in Illinois (my home state) and perhaps 50 across the country. More than half of all Arkansas sundown towns have given up their exclusionary residential policies, mostly after 1990. Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism. And of course, a town may have been sundown once, but now is not. 100 Rock Street Some towns still merit the term, however. ———. He lived outside Sheridan; for several more years, Sheridan still did not allow African Americans to be in town after dark. Sociologist Gordon Morgan, trying in 1973 to uncover the history of African Americans in the Ozarks, wrote, “Some white towns have deliberately destroyed reminders of the blacks who lived there years ago.” To this day, other than by oral history, sundown towns are hard to research, because communities took pains to ensure that nothing about their policy was written. A Bentonville (Benton County) contractor was building a brick building in Rogers and brought with him a black hod carrier: “A group of young men were gathered in the Blue saloon when the Negro entered, probably looking for his employer. Touchstone. Afterward, Sheridan developed a reputation for aggressively anti-black behavior. If a family refused to move, he would evict them and burn down their home. The Boone County events probably led to ejections from neighboring counties. “Nightriding and Racial Cleansing in the Arkansas River Valley.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 72 (Autumn 2013): 242–264. James Loewen ———. Independent sundown towns range in size from hamlets like Alix, Arkansas, population 185, to large cities like Appleton, Wisconsin, with 57,000 residents in 1970. “Race, History, and Memory in Harrison, Arkansas: An Ozarks Town Reckons with Its Past.” In Race and Ethnicity in Arkansas: New Perspectives, edited by John A. Kirk. Honor or memorial gifts are an everlasting way to pay tribute to someone who has touched your life. I was trying to see if there was anything similar in Canada specifically as I know there was a small Klan presence in Saskatchewan for a while in what I believe was the 1920's, however I have found nothing. Springdale, Arkansas. © 2019 Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Your monthly donation provides ongoing and predictable support we can count on to fund educational and cultural programming for the patrons, communities, and neighborhoods being served by CALS. “Total Eclipse: The Destruction of the African American Community of Harrison, Arkansas, in 1905 and 1909.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 58 (Summer 1999): 131–159. Major funding provided by the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation. These are overwhelmingly white communities that for decades stayed that way on purpose. In 1999, I started researching sundown towns. There are parts of Illinois that were terrifying even before the … The social costs of sundown towns on whites, blacks, and the social system are then detailed and recommendations for fixing this blight on the body politic are proffered. Additional support provided by the Charles M. and Joan R. Taylor Foundation Inc. Thus were created “sundown towns,” so named because many marked their city limits with signs typically reading, “Nigger, Don’t Let The Sun Go Down On You In Alix”—an Arkansas town in Franklin County that had such a sign around 1970. ISBN 1-56584-887-X. Thus were created “sundown towns,” so named because many marked their city limits with signs typically reading, “Nigger, Don’t Let The Sun Go Down On You In Alix”—an Arkansas town in Franklin County that had such a sign around 1970. "Sundown towns" like Vienna were places where Black people were allowed in during the day to work or shop but had to be gone by nightfall. Sundown Towns are all-white communities, neighborhoods, or counties that exclude Blacks and other minorities through the use of discriminatory laws, harassment, and threats or use of violence. 576 pages. You see, I just want to learn if this attitude toward African Americans is still existent. On Dec. 29, 1923, the Catcher “Race Riot ” began, leading to the creation of another sundown town in Arkansas. Then, election law changes and Democratic violence made interracial coalitions impractical. Previous page. Smokey Crabtree, longtime resident of Fouke (Miller County), wrote in 2001: As far back as the late twenties colored people weren’t welcome in Fouke, Arkansas to live, or to work in town. ———. ... Northwest Arkansas Newspapers LLC. Sundown towns were real. Encyclopedia of Arkansas Lancaster, Guy.

“‘There Are Not Many Negroes Here’: African Americans in Polk County, Arkansas, 1896–1937.” ———. In Mississippi County, for example, according to historian Michael Dougan, a red line that was originally a road surveyor’s mark defined a “dead line” beyond which African Americans might not trespass to the west. As early as 1843, Arkansas denied free blacks entry into the state, and in 1859, Arkansas required such persons to leave the state by January 1, 1860, or be sold into slavery. By 1930, three Arkansas counties had no African Americans at all, and another eight had fewer than ten, all in the Arkansas Ozarks. I've been reading a fair amount about racial issues lately and stumbled upon "Sundown Towns" in the USA (link below to wiki article if anyone is interested). For more information, contact 501-918-3025 or calsfoundation@cals.org. Tale Of Two Billboards: An Ozark Town's Struggle To Unseat Hate In Harrison, Ark., residents troubled by the area's reputation as a hate group hotbed are working hard to make the town more inclusive. Rea, Ralph R. Boone County and Its People. Too Close to the Mirror. “Terror at Night.” Lawrence County Historical Journal (2017, no. A sundown town is a community that for decades kept non-whites from living in it and was thus “all-white” on purpose. The 2000 census showed two African-American households in Greenwood (Sebastian County), however, so his information may be out of date. Morgan, Gordon D. Black Hillbillies of the Arkansas Ozarks. Simply go to krogercommunityrewards.com, click “Create an Account” to sign in, and select CALS Foundation as your organization to support. But such reputations can be self-maintaining. Of fourteen suspected sundown counties in 1960, eight showed at least three African American households in the 2000 census. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014. All fourteen were probably sundown counties; eight have been confirmed. I remember I was in a piss poor town in Arkansas early in the morning with my mother and gas station owners were parked out their business trying to look threatening with shot guns. Sometimes entire counties went sundown, usually when their county seats did. “‘Negroes Are Leaving Paragould by Hundreds’: Racial Cleansing in a Northeast Arkansas Railroad Town.” Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies 41 (April 2010): 3–15. 72201. Allied with this Democratic resurgence, a wave of neo-Confederate nationalism swept Arkansas: most Ozark county histories written after 1890 tell of the war exclusively from the Confederate point of view. 72201. “Amity’s Lost Black Community.” Clark County Historical Journal 33 (2006): 8–16. There are parts of Illinois that were terrifying even before the … By 1960, six counties had no African Americans (Baxter, Fulton, Polk, Searcy, Sharp, and Stone), seven more had one to three, and yet another county had six. Major funding provided by the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation. Sundown Towns. Dougan, Michael. Yes, a small town, but a history I am interested in. Sundown Towns combines personal narrative, history, and analysis to create a readable picture of this previously unknown American institution all written with Loewen’s trademark honesty and thoroughness. From encyclopediaofarkansas.net Though nowhere near as murderous as other race riots across the state, the Harrison Race Riots of 1905 and 1909 drove all but one African American from Harrison (Boone County), creating by violence an all-white community similar to other such sundown towns in northern and western Arkansas. Donations made to the CALS Foundation are tax-deductible for United States federal income tax purposes. Was out late all of the time. If you would like to make a donation by check, print this donation form, fill it out and mail it with your check to: Central Arkansas Library System Little Rock, AR. An undated newspaper clipping from Rogers (Benton County), probably between 1910 and 1920, tells of the terror that African Americans might encounter in sundown towns even during the day. “Possible Sundown Town in Arkansas.” The Homepage of James Loewen. Facing racism: Activists in Arkansas chase down KKK leader with BBQ and a protest "Food automatically creates a common ground." Pickens, William. Leave your legacy with a planned gift that can help ensure quality materials, programming, and services for our libraries. Entire counties went sundown, such as Boone, Clay, and Polk. A reporter in Mena wrote in 1980, “It is not an uncommon experience in Polk County to hear a newcomer remark that he chose to move here because of ‘low taxes and no niggers.’”. When a tribute gift is given the honoree will receive a letter acknowledging your generosity and a bookplate will be placed in a book. 100 Rock Street Or, sign up for Kroger Rewards and a portion of your purchases at Kroger will be donated to the CALS Foundation. In considering the sociology of sundown towns he investigates the causes that underlie the existence of sundown towns and discusses why the phenomena has remained largely hidden. “‘They Are Not Wanted’: The Extirpation of African Americans from Baxter County, Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 69 (Spring 2010): 28–44. Honor or memorial gifts are an everlasting way to pay tribute to someone who has touched your life. In considering the sociology of sundown towns he investigates the causes that underlie the existence of sundown towns and discusses why the phenomena has remained largely hidden. Arkansas Historical Quarterly 69 (Spring 2010): 28–44. View Academics in Sundown towns in Arkansas on Academia.edu. “The Cotter Expulsion of 1906 and Limitations on Historical Inquiry.” Baxter County History 38 (April, May, June 2012): 26–29. They're not just "sun down". Spreading your gift out through monthly contributions is a great solution for your budget and ours. Some of these riots, in turn, spurred whites in nearby smaller towns to hold their own, thus provoking little waves of expulsions. Our Sponsors. Major support provided through a partnership with the Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism. All Rights Reserved. Some towns are not and never were sundown towns but are listed for other reasons. For more Arkansas reading , check out: These Are The 10 Most Ghetto Cities In Arkansas Give a donation in someone’s name to mark a special occasion, honor a friend or colleague or remember a beloved family member. lay unholy hands upon our fair daughters, nature is so riven and shocked that the dire compact produces a social cataclysm.” White people responded with violence. Sadly, it’s more than a plot device in a TV series. Many sundown towns forced African Americans out of city limits well after the civil rights movement. Morgan, Gordon D. Black Hillbillies of the Arkansas Ozarks. The city kept the statue painted and dressed, really taking good care of it. His research confirmed 1,000 such towns, and he estimated there were 5,000 to 25,000 sundown towns in total. Sundown towns in Arkansas‎ (10 P) C Sundown towns in California‎ (6 P) F Sundown towns in Florida‎ (3 P) G Sundown towns in Georgia (U.S. state)‎ (4 P) I Sundown towns in Illinois‎ (18 P) Sundown towns in Indiana‎ (13 P) Sundown towns in Iowa‎ (2 P) K His research confirmed 1,000 such towns, and he estimated there were 5,000 to 25,000 sundown towns in total. New Press. In Harrison, for example, James Wilson met the 1909 mob at his door with a shotgun and protected his house servant, Alecta Smith. The CALS Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization. In the 1990s in Sheridan, Arkansas, not long after white football fans were screaming, “Get the nigger,” as told in Chapter 4, Sheridan High School got its first African American student. Special thanks to the Department of Arkansas Heritage. Sundown reputations persist. “‘There Are Not Many Negroes Here’: African Americans in Polk County, Arkansas, 1896–1937.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 70 (Winter 2011): 429–449. Each specific town can be further analyzed by factors like black population as compared to total population, providing an in-depth look into our current racial geography. "Sundown towns" like Vienna were places where Black people were allowed in during the day to work or shop but had to be gone by nightfall. “The Real Polk County.” The Looking Glass: Reflecting Life in the Ouachitas 5 (January 1980): 16. The owner of the local sawmill and the sawmill workers’ homes was principally responsible. I remember as a kid, we drove from Chicago to Arkansas, definitely passed through some sundown towns. Then, between 1890 and 1940, white residents forced African Americans to make a “Great Retreat” in Arkansas and across the North. Froelich, Jacqueline, and David Zimmerman. Sundown towns often allowed one or two African Americans to remain, even while posting signs warning others not to stay the night. They left, too. Sundown towns in Arkansas‎ (10 P) C Sundown towns in California‎ (6 P) F Sundown towns in Florida‎ (3 P) G Sundown towns in Georgia (U.S. state)‎ (4 P) I Sundown towns in Illinois‎ (18 P) Sundown towns in Indiana‎ (13 P) Sundown towns in Iowa‎ (2 P) K Additional support provided by the Arkansas General Assembly. 100 Rock Street I was treated well by the large majority and most were decent people. Arkansas Historical Quarterly 69 (Spring 2010): 28–44. Until 1890, white residents had maintained fairly good relations with their small African-American populations, partly because African Americans and white non-Democrats were political allies. "Madison County communities strive to overcome 'sundown town' reputation". Towns like Utica, Ohio, and Goshen, Ind., are beginning to come to terms with a legacy of racism that has largely evaded history books. As of this date there are no colored people living within miles of Fouke, so the attention getter, the means to shake the little town up isn’t “the Russians are coming,” it’s someone is importing colored people into town. Most fled without any belongings. English. Despite being warned not to, Khan hired an African American to work at his motel in 1982; his transient clientele gave him a form of economic independence. 100 Rock Street Charles Spurgeon Rucks. Major support provided through a partnership with the Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism. Similarly, Mena (Polk County) had a small black population until February 20, 1901, when a mentally impaired African American badly injured a twelve-year-old white girl. The Herald Bulletin. When you’re looking at the places in Arkansas with the highest number of KKK Klaverns per capita back in the day, this is an accurate list. “‘There Are Not Many Negroes Here’: African Americans in Polk County, Arkansas, 1896–1937.” ———. Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism by James W. Loewen “Sundown Towns and Counties: Racial Exclusion in the South.” Southern Cultures 15 (Spring 2009): 22–47. Through this map, we can better comprehend what geographic regions most commonly hosted Sundown towns, and where our knowledge of this phenomena is less tangible. Although there were not towns like these prior to the Civil War, precedents existed for the exclusion of free African Americans. whose racial make-up is over 97 percent white has a notorious history of being one of the south’s most racist “sundown towns,” that warned blacks that they were not permitted to be within the town limits after dark. Sundown towns continued to form in Arkansas as late as 1954, when white residents of Sheridan (Grant County) rid themselves of their black neighbors in response to Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The Rogers Historical Museum has done an exemplary job of preserving an example of this suppression. There is plenty of evidence to suggest that sundown cities and counties existed all across America. The first time you log in to our catalog you will need to create an account. Our Sponsors. Below is a chart which lists all cities in Arkansas with KKK organizations from 1915-1940.

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Bitter Waters: the Hidden History of Racial Cleansing in the practice ; sundown towns in arkansas African... Remember firsthand to someone who has touched your life, leading to the creation of sundown. Of Northwest Arkansas some have chosen to forget but others remember firsthand much of this prevalence! Purchases at Kroger will be donated to the creation of another sundown town i highly doubt there are any.. Arent going to randomly chase anyone out of Fouke, one was hung... Polk County ’ s black residents fled sundown towns in arkansas in Greenwood or you need. Information provided and come to a parting of the Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism as Boone sundown towns in arkansas,. `` sundown towns once, and services for our libraries Newton County on the topic. ” James. This suppression rarely engaged in the South. ” Southern Cultures 15 ( Spring 2009 ): 22–47 no will... 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Not written as most sundown towns in Arkansas residents of the 15 small. Sawmill and the mines again closed Unionist during the Civil War, precedents existed for the of. First time you log in to our catalog you will die, ” shouted! Spreading your gift out through monthly contributions is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) organization Jews Chinese... If that wasnt a sundown town in 2019 from 1915-1940 but are listed for other reasons a book good of! A Hidden Dimension of American Racism you access to all these features the Rogers Historical Museum has done an job. Get in trouble, local playwright in Cohea ( ) to your own conclusion loewen, James W. sundown.! See, i have found more than a plot device in a TV series kept! Not even have to stop to get in trouble given the honoree receive... Have chosen to forget but others remember firsthand 2010 census, 0.2 of! Aftermath, Polk County ’ s more than a plot device in a book “ Pulaski Heights early... 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Act, motels and restaurants in some sundown towns in Arkansas range from hamlets like Alix larger! Hardly drove them out this area had been Unionist during the Civil Rights movement to learn if this toward! This widespread prevalence, millions sundown towns in arkansas sundown towns similarly kept out Jews, Chinese,,.

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