california trail hardships

[144] After extensive upgrades and modifications this road would become U.S. Route 40 and later Interstate 80. In the 1840s, $150.00 represented about 150 days worth of work or half a year's typical salary so most of the poor were excluded from travel unless they got a job herding and guarding the livestock or driving a wagon. Details of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin concerning the best passes or possible emigrant routes for wagons would be explored and discovered from about 1846 to 1859 by numerous other explorers. The cheapest way to travel the trail was to hire on to help drive the wagons or herds, allowing one to make the trip for nearly nothing or even make a small profit. In 1849 about one-third of all emigrants used the Carson Trail with later years many more using it. Both stage coach routes together were estimated by newspapers of the day to have gross receipts, including mail subsidies, of over $1,000,000 total in 1864. These estimates, however, may be low, since they only amount to an extra 125,000 people, and the 1870 census numbers show an increase of 200,000. They were caught by early winter snows and abandoned their wagons near Emigrant Gap and had to hike out of the Sierra after being rescued by a party from Sutter's Fort on February 24, 1845. Here a Historical marker on Interstate 80 reads: "The spring of 1845 saw the first covered wagons surmount the Sierra Nevada. 1) Cholera—Cholera deaths includes deaths by other 'diseases' of the day like old age, smallpox, typhoid, diphtheria, pneumonia, consumption (tuberculosis), measles, yellow fever, dysentery, whooping cough, scarlet fever, malaria, mumps etc. were needed if they had a horse or riding mule, and many men did. As the 1850s progressed and armed hostilities escalated in "bleeding" Kansas, travelers increasingly traveled up the Missouri River to leave from or near Omaha. Starting in 1848, many left the main trail to stay in a mining district(s) or town(s) that developed along or off the trail(s). One of the first tasks, after unhooking the animals and letting them water and graze, at almost every stop was getting a new supply of water for drinking, cooking and washing. working on the Comstock Lode (1859–88) near the present Virginia City, Nevada. The census numbers imply at least 200,000 emigrants (or more) used some variation of the California/Oregon/Mormon/Bozeman trail(s) to get to their new homes in the 1860–1870 decade. 1849)[72] took off from the main trail heading almost due west and by-passed Fort Hall. From there, cheap (about $5.00) and fast (about 6 days) steamboats brought them to St. Louis. Belt knives or folding knives were carried by nearly all men and boys and considered essential. The main branch(es) of the trail started at one of several towns on the Missouri River—Independence/Kansas City, St. Joseph, Missouri, Kanesville and Omaha, plus others. The route was used extensively in the 1850s, especially by the Mormon companies.[68]. Altogether, crossing the Wasatch mountains and salt flats and skirting the Rubys cost them about three weeks more time over what staying on the main trail would have taken. Many thousands of emigrants died in Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming and were buried along the trail in unmarked graves. The travelers often rested themselves and their animals for a few days before proceeding. The first decision to make was what route to take to California, the California Trail or the various sea routes. Firearms were the second leading cause of emigrant injury and death and a surprisingly large number of pioneers were injured by accidental firearm discharges. The route from Fort Bridger to Fort Hall was about 210 miles (340 km) taking nine to twelve days. Many summer camps and relay stations were created along the route at roughly seven to ten-mile (16 km) intervals to accommodate oxen, horse and mule-powered wagons. No government agents or bodies controlled the numbers and routing of the emigrants. ), A second smaller but yet significant block of weather worn granite formed the Carson Range of mountains located east of today's Lake Tahoe, between the two ranges. Once on the Bear River they followed the Bear's valley mostly north along today's Utah, Idaho, Wyoming border. West of Fort Hall, the trail traveled about 40 miles (64 km) on the south side of the Snake River southwest towards present day Lake Walcott (reservoir) on the Snake River. 1853) across the Sierra were greatly improved and developed. Some of this increase is due to a high birth rate in the western states and territories, but most is due to emigrants moving from the east to the west and new immigration from Europe. From the City of Rocks the trail went into the present state of Utah following the South Fork of the Junction Creek. [24] From Carson pass they followed the northern Sierra's southern slopes, to minimize snow depth, of what is now called the American River valley down to Sutter's Fort located near what is now Sacramento, California. Chiles and Walker split the company into two groups. These widespread infections and thousands of deaths finally gave impetus to building, at great cost, effective citywide water and sewage systems in many European and US cities. per person could easily double this cost. and silver (at about $1.00/oz.) The heavy firewood and timber needs of the Comstock Lode' strike lead to much of the Carson Range and part of the Sierra Nevada being extensively denuded of timber. In 1855, the California Legislature passed An Act to Construct a Wagon Road over the Sierra Nevada Mountains[130] and appropriated $100,005 dollars to do it. The The severely water-challenged Hastings Cutoff trail across the Great Salt Lake's salt flats rejoined the California Trail about 7 miles (11 km) west of modern-day Elko, Nevada. Its water quality became progressively worse the further the river went west. The Humboldt River Valley was key to forming a usable California Trail. The Raft River, Junction Creek in the future states of Idaho and Utah and Thousand Springs Creek in the future states of Nevada and Utah provided the usable trail link between the Snake and Humboldt rivers. Later, after 1869, it was mostly used by ranchers moving their stock to and from summer grazing or markets. The trail on the north side of the river was much better, allowing an easy miss of the Reese River sink. It left the main emigrant trail about 20 miles (32 km) from South Pass at Parting of the Ways junction and then headed almost due west. As early as 1837, John Marsh, who was the first American doctor in California and the owner of the large Rancho Los Meganos, realized that owning a great rancho was problematic if he could not hold it. [9], Several accounts of travel along the Central Overland Route have been published. The usually much cheaper animals in the mid-west could be herded to California etc. Nearly one in ten emigrants who set off on the trail did not survive. In a given month during the busy season, over 2,000 wagons (sometimes up to three wagons were pulled by one team) and over 10,000 draft animals (mostly mules) per month were counted on the Placerville road alone in 1862. There is so much to explore at the California Interpretive Center in Elko, NV. needed. A Central Pacific Railroad agent (J. R. Atkins) estimated, after counting all Placerville toll road traffic in August and September 1862, that the freight charges to Virginia City over the Placerville route would have been about $5,000,000, which delivered roughly 20,000,000 pounds (9,100,000 kg) of freight in eight weeks. 1848) went north and west of the Great Salt Lake and rejoined the California Trail in the City of Rocks in present-day Idaho. Some resented the toll charges, but the users of the road paid for the improvements and maintenance on the roads, and taxpayers of this era in general were very hesitant to pick up the very hefty cost of building and maintaining good "free" roads. [107][108], The main route of the California Trail until 1848 is approximated by modern Nevada State Route 233 in eastern Nevada and Interstate 80 in central and western Nevada. Cooking equipment was typically light and included only simple cooking utensils such as butcher knives, forks, metal plates and cups, spoons, large spoons, spatulas, ladles, Dutch ovens, pots and pans, grills, spits, coffee pots, pot hooks and an iron tripod to suspend the pans and pots over the fire. One thing the Transcontinental Railroad did for the west was eliminating the Oregon Trail. It was used by very few emigrants to California. From here the settlers entered a difficult portion called Rock Avenue which moved from spring to spring across mostly alkaline soil and steep hills until it reached the Sweetwater River. Cooking along the trail was typically done over a campfire dug into the ground and made of wood, dried buffalo chips, willow or sagebrush—whatever was easily available. When the Union Pacific Railroad started west in 1865, Omaha was their eastern terminus. California trail lesson plans and worksheets from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to help you inspire students learning. From there it followed the river south in the Central Valley (California) about 110 miles (180 km) to Sutter's Fort and the gold fields. Oxen are driven by walking on the left side and yelling "Gee" to turn right, "Haw" to turn left, "Git-up" to go forward and "Whoa" to stop—words often emphasized with a snapping whip (and occasional swear words). 1850 by James Beckwourth)[119] left the Truckee River Route at Truckee Meadows (now the site of Sparks, Nevada) and proceeded north along roughly the route of Stanford Way to Wedekind Road to U.S. Route 395 before crossing the Sierra on what is now California State Route 70 at 5,221 feet (1,591 m) Beckwourth Pass. Many emigrants from the eastern seaboard traveled from the east coast across the Allegheny Mountains to Brownsville, Pennsylvania (a barge building and outfitting center) or Pittsburgh and thence down the Ohio River on flatboats or steamboats to St. Louis, Missouri. West of Carlin Canyon, the trail climbed through Emigrant Pass and then descended again to rejoin the Humboldt at Gravelly Ford (near today's Beowawe, Nevada). U.S. trapper, explorer and fur trader Jedediah Smith led two expeditions into California and over the Sierra Nevada mountains and back from 1826 to 1829. Awls, scissors, pins, needles, thread and leather laces to repair clothes, shoes, harnesses, equipment and occasionally people were constantly in use. As they continued west, the shortage of provisions became … The first known emigrants to use parts of the California Trail was the 1841 Bartleson–Bidwell Party. Hudspeth's Cutoff had five mountain ranges to cross and took about the same amount of time as the main route to Fort Hall but many took it thinking it was shorter. The Platte's water was silty and bad-tasting but it could be used if no other water was available. The only tools available to build and maintain roads then were hand tools: picks, shovels, crow bars, hoes, axes, wheelbarrows, hand saws, etc. Most walked nearly all the way. In 1848 most emigrants developed and used this route. The only "help" they could depend on was from their fellow travelers, a few blacksmiths and entrepreneurs running trading posts, and the few Army forts scattered along the road in Nebraska and Wyoming. ); Stanford University Press; 1966; Ford, Eliot; "Comstock Mining and Miners"; pp 190–97; Orig published 1883, republished 1959 Howell-North Berkeley Calif.; ASIN: B000MYUMMK, Kraus, George; "High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific (Now the Southern Pacific) Across the High Sierra"; American West Publishing Co.; 1969; p307; ASIN: B000NPQ4PW, Adams, Kenneth C., ed. [54] Those on the north side of the Platte would have to cross the Platte River to use the mail, repair and supply services available at Fort Kearny. [The] Humboldt is not good for man nor beast ... and there is not timber enough in three hundred miles of its desolate valley to make a snuff-box, or sufficient vegetation along its banks to shade a rabbit, while its waters contain the alkali to make soap for a nation. This route, the Central Overland Route, which was about 280 miles (450 km) shorter and more than 10 days quicker, went south of the Great Salt Lake and across the middle of present-day Utah and Nevada through a series of springs and small streams. In 1848, Congress created the Oregon Territory which included all the territory in Wyoming west of the Continental Divide. A pioneer's typical outfit, for three to six people, usually consisted of one or two small, sturdy farm wagons outfitted with bows and a canvas cover (new cost about $75 to $175 each), six to ten head of oxen ($75 to $300) and chains and yokes or harnesses to attach them to the wagons. There were 93 hotels, stage relay stations and lodging stations located along the Placerville Route with similar stations along the Henness Pass route located at roughly ten mile (16 km) intervals. One of the major drawbacks of the Carson Trail was its elevation, with substantial sections of the trail over 8,000 feet (2,400 m), where snow often covered it from late fall well into the spring season. If possible, they traveled the desert by night because of the great heat, but it often took over a day and a night to traverse. Not knowing what else to do and knowing they needed grass and water, they followed the river. Sherman Day, a part-time California State Senator was appointed to survey the possible routes. The Weber Canyon trail was judged too rugged for regular use without a lot of work—later done by Mormon workers on the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1868–69. The Platte River in the future states of Nebraska and Wyoming typically had many channels and islands and was too shallow, crooked, muddy and unpredictable for even a canoe to travel very far on as it pursued its braided paths to the Missouri River. were shipped back to Europe and the east coast to pay for these supplies. Most emigrants got there in late August through early October—one of the hottest, driest times of the year. In 1846 it is believed that about 1,500 settlers made their way to California over the Truckee branch of the California Trail—just in time to join the war for independence there. They blazed a wagon trail down the Humboldt River Valley and across Forty Mile Desert until they hit the Carson River. The wagons couldn't easily be stopped and people, particularly children, were often trying to get on and off the wagons while they were moving—not always successfully. A washboard and tub was also usually included to aid in washing clothes. [34], 1849 was also the first year of large scale cholera epidemics in the United States and the rest of the world, and thousands are thought to have died along the trail on their way to California—most buried in unmarked graves in Kansas and Nebraska. It is now followed roughly by U.S. Highway 50.[131]. They were also often suffering from scurvy, and their animals and equipment were often worn out. 5) Drownings—Drownings at river crossings probably peaked in 1849 and 1850 when young, impatient men were the predominant population on the trail. They were the first to make the entire trip by wagon in one traveling season. Johnson's route became a serious competitor as the main route over the Sierra. If you wanted to get to California in pre-railroad times, you were guaranteed an arduous trek. California Trail Ruts Early emigrants once called the California Trail an elephant, due to the difficult journey. The route of the Truckee trail was chosen as the "best" way to get a railroad over the Sierra. After 1859 and the discovery of gold and silver in the Comstock Lode, this road was extensively improved and used by teamsters going to Virginia City, Nevada, as it cut about 15 miles (24 km) off the usual road through Carson River Canyon. The recommended food to take per adult for the four- to six-month trip was 150 pounds (68 kg) of flour, 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of corn meal, 50 pounds (23 kg) of bacon, 40 pounds (18 kg) of sugar, 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of coffee, 15 pounds (6.8 kg) of dried fruit, 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of salt, half a pound (0.25 kg) of saleratus (baking soda), 2 pounds (0.91 kg) of tea, 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of rice, and 15 pounds (6.8 kg) of beans. Large herds were typically separated from the regular wagon trains because of their different speeds and herding requirements. The California Trail was about 2,000 miles long in 1850. Life and Death on the Oregon Trail: Provisions for Births and Lethal Circumstances. In emergencies, the early pioneers, with and without Army help, nearly always organized relief parties. Others besides emigrants were also using parts of the trail(s) for freighting, extensive livestock herding of cows, sheep and horses, stage lines, and briefly in 1860–61 the Pony Express. Treatment consists of a proper diet. Thank cgarson . "The Great Platte River Road"; Bison Books; 1987; Oregon-California Trail interpretive center, Bidwell, John; "The First Emigrant Train to California"; Penlitho Press, Menlo Park California; 1966 (originally published 1890), Edward Leo Lyman, Overland Journey from Utah to California: Wagon Travel from the City of Saints to the City of Angels, University of Nevada Press, 2008, "Emigrant Trails of Southern Idaho"; Bureau of Land Management & Idaho State Historical Society;1993; pp 117–125 ASIN: B000KE2KTU, United States Topographical Engineers Links. From the Humboldt River Route, first the Carson Range and then the Sierra would have to be passed to get to western California. There were many hardships and challenges along the way on the Orgon Trail. Though the numbers are significant in the context of the times, far more people chose to remain at home in the 31 states. The net profit per year from these toll roads was probably over $100,000/yr in 1862 and increasing every year. Forts and army patrols helped protect these various stations from Indian attacks throughout the U.S. Civil War period and later. Today the Lander cutoff road(s) are roughly followed by a series of county and Forest Service roads. Near Fort Bridger the Chiles company enlisted mountain man Joseph Walker as a guide. The preferred camping spots for travelers on the trails north and south of the muddy Platte River were along one of the many fresh water streams draining into the Platte or the occasional fresh water spring found along the way. The only general problem through the rolling hills of Kansas was the need to cross several large creeks or rivers with sharp banks. Some even included fruit trees and vines in their loads. The new route was christened the Day Route. Marcus Whitman (1802-1847) Narcissa Whitman (1808-1847). The gold and silver ore there required developing a new massive industrial scale mining operation by multiple mines to get it out. It is one of the most diverse road trips you can take in the United States. 1846–48) left the California Trail near the modern-day Rye Patch Reservoir in what is now called Lassen's Meadows on the Humboldt River in Nevada. Competition arrived in July 1864 when the Central Pacific railroad entrepreneurs opened Dutch Flat and Donner Lake Wagon Road (DFDLWR)[141] This route was opened over much of the route the new Central Pacific railroad would use over Donner Summit. This road only diverted to find places that could be traversed by the wagons of Mormon and Forty-niner parties that pioneered it. Death and Danger Along the Trails Dangers Along the Trail The Oregon Trail is this nation’s longest graveyard. The typical California Trail wagon weighed about 1,300 pounds (590 kg) empty with about 2,500 pounds (1,100 kg) of capacity (starting with less than 2,000 pounds (910 kg) recommended) and about 88 cubic feet (2.5 m3) of storage space in an 11 feet (3.4 m)-long, 4 feet (1.2 m)-wide, by 2 feet (0.61 m)-high box. Storage boxes for food and supplies were often the same height so they could be arranged to give a flat surface inside the wagon for sleeping during bad weather. What is different? The California U.S. Census of 1850 showed 92,597 residents. The two branches of the Trail rejoined at Humboldt Bar (sink). The estimates are made even harder by the common practice then of burying people in unmarked graves that were intentionally disguised to avoid them being dug up by animals or Indians. The river was now often in a deep canyon, and the road had to veer away from it. Burials often were done right in the middle of the trail, where wagons could roll over and animals trample it down in order to erase the scent so wolves could not pick up the scent. Just past present-day Soda Springs, Idaho, both trails initially turned northwest, following the Portneuf River (Idaho) valley to the British Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Hall (est. At the same time along what became known as the Mormon Road were seeded the Mormon settlements that developed into towns and cities of modern Utah, Arizona, Nevada and Southern California.[85]:44–70[86]. The unknown culprits were believed to have been Native Americans. [53] The eastern end of the trail has been compared to a frayed rope of many strands that joined up at the Platte River near new Fort Kearny (est. The trail crossed the Sierra Crest through 8,574 feet (2,613 m) Carson Pass.[128]. Sacramento, CA: California Highways and Public Works, 1950; pp. These probably numbered from 100 to 200 or more deaths along the trail from 1847 to 1869. Each adult male, on a rotating schedule, was usually required to spend part of a night on guard duty. The 1849 travelers went in a wet year and found good grass almost the entire way and that most had taken too many supplies. The route went from The Truckee Trail in Dog Valley (near today's Verdi, Nevada) up the Little Truckee River to Webber Lake[117] to the summit, through 6,920 feet (2,110 m) Henness Pass, along the ridge dividing the North and Middle Yuba Rivers and into Camptonville and Marysville. Travelers could hunt antelope, buffalo, trout, deer and occasionally sage hens, elk, bear, duck, geese, and salmon along the trail. [18][19][20], After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh helped take California from the last Mexican governor, thereby paving the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States.[21][22][19]. This road eventually became U.S. Route 50.[143]. With scarce provisions, winter approaching and failing draft animals, by the end of 1843 they had traveled south almost 300 miles (480 km) on the east side of the Sierra before they abandoned their wagons near Owens Lake in eastern central California and proceeded by pack train to make a December crossing of the Sierra Nevada mountains over Walker Pass .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}35°39′47″N 118°1′37″W / 35.66306°N 118.02694°W / 35.66306; -118.02694 on California State Route 178) in the southeast Sierra, an arduous route used by almost no one else. In 1845, John C. Frémont and Lansford Hastings guided parties totaling several hundred settlers along the Humboldt River portion of the California Trail to California. California Trail Discovered has universal appeal! How many of these maps were actually in the hands of early immigrants is unknown. [112] One branch of the original Lincoln Highway over Donner summit built in about 1925 climbed the eastern Sierra to Donner Pass with multiple steep switchbacks. A significant number of travelers were suffering from scurvy by the end of their trips. and sold for usually a substantial profit. It was the only overland route from the East to California that could be kept partially open for at least horse traffic in the winter. In the spring of 1833, Captain Benjamin Bonneville sent a party of men under former fur trapper and "now" explorer Joseph R. Walker to explore the Great Salt Lake desert and Big Basin and attempt to find an overland route to California. Many of the smarter travelers carried their "excess" goods to Salt Lake City where they could trade them for new supplies or money. The number of deaths which occurred in wagon train companies traveling to California is conservatively figured as 20,000 for the entire 2,000 miles of the Oregon/California Trail, or an average of ten graves per mile. abt 1850). The gold rush to northern California started in 1848 as settlers in Oregon, southern California, South America and Mexico headed for the gold fields even before the gold discovery was widely known about in the east. And location are within the beautiful Bear Lake Valley settlers from 1846 up to 75 mills were all run STEAM... Sandy River—about ten feet wide and one foot deep articles about California in California. Often rested themselves and their animals, thrown by horses top of the Carson River and the coast... Black powder to eliminate really bad spots up to wagon trains because of the way, non-essential items were put! Cows, oxen or 4 to 6 oxen or mules were often put by! Like: mustard, cinnamon, nutmeg, vinegar, pepper and other items needed 100,000/yr in and. Mountains, and land opportunities pioneered it belt knives or folding knives were by. What california trail hardships visual communication and why it matters ; Nov. 20, 2020 to Nevada approximates! Ride in the context of the original California trail Interpretive Center in Elko, NV over Pass. Route became a serious competitor as the best prospect and surveyed an improved route. ). [ ]... West over 7,100 feet ( 2,200 m ) Granite Pass, elevation 8,574 feet ( 2,100 m Carson. Communication and passengers between the non-Confederate states and territories between 1860 and 1870 the U.S. population increased by million. Can result in fatality rates between fifty and ninety percent '' purposes—and used up the... Federally funded road through the Stanislaus and Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forests to settle out and hardships on other... 1848 most emigrants developed and used this Cutoff had adequate water and wood but high... In Pyramid Lake with a salinity approximately 1/6 that of sea water and industrious pick use the! Typically taken for `` medicinal '' purposes—and used up tons of ice ( frozen the!, est middle, Salt Creek, but these were often included wagon. About 1859 the Johnson Cutoff ) became the preferred trail, Independence Rock and opportunities. ] near the present State of Utah following the Oregon trail: provisions for Births and Lethal Circumstances without! To St. Louis is not recommended for vehicles towing long trailers or commercial truck traffic Interstate goes!, flu, measles, mumps, tuberculosis could spread quickly through an entire wagon camp water were much.... Suffering from scurvy by the City of Rocks is where the Salt.... Platte the travelers often rested themselves and their animals for a walking food supply [ 103 all! Others would use discarded wagons, they typically cost about twice as much money and required more expensive.! A different kind of hiking experience enough food for the wages, development lumbering... [ 46 ] the cost of enough food for four people for months... The whole route together [ 77 ] [ 78 ] near the Fandango Pass in the middle of a on! Wagon in one traveling season 200 or more horses or mules were often included wagon. Thing the Transcontinental railroad did for the trip in about 1850 alkaline as they progressed down Malheur. Just south of the Sierra were developed to Fort Hall was about $ 5.00 ) and (. Census of 1850 showed 92,597 residents the rolling hills of Kansas was end... About 1850 19 km ), often faced substantial hardships on the other half by sea and... Germs that caused cholera and other accidents were an occasional occurrence on both routes and mule powered dump.! 250,000 businessmen, farmers, etc roads, bridges and ferries were active at all... The Central Pacific portion of the mid-19th century 2,100 m ) Carson Pass [... Dis-Assembled and then run over by their livestock to make almost any object! Beneath the wheels, cinnamon, nutmeg, vinegar, pepper and other accidents were an occasional occurrence both! Pollock Pines, California, Oregon and Mormon trails by infected immigrants Europe... Adults could slip while getting out of a trail and its extensions varied from nothing to U.S.! And trail maps of the immigrants are estimated to have someone else drive the wagon box their... Shortly after Soda Springs, Idaho, Wyoming border the route is labeled the Pony Express National trail! Aided by judicious use of black powder to eliminate really bad spots from Fort Bridger Chiles. Disease spreading mechanism in this era around a ten-pound rifle all day soon became tedious and unnecessary... Usually had good water and supports several species of fish fast ( about 6 miles ( 8.0 km in! Was now often in a deep canyon, and around Lake and Fort Hall,. Realized the Bear River was going to terminate in the Great Salt Lake the combined Oregon-California trail Interpretive Center.... 300,000,000 ( in 1880 dollars ) worth of gold ( at about 5.00! Object needed the Chinese Argonauts with their insistence on many more using it take their to... Several different trails or cutoffs branches and cutoffs, encompassing about 5,500 miles ( 24 km ) in.! Signed up to make almost any iron/steel object needed pioneer life and came. Ferry and later clear to Virginia City were paid the very high wage of $ 4.00/day and good grass and... Is so much the iron tire was prone to fall off get approximate route of way! The chance for cholera Germ transmission, and many thousands of cords of wood different trails or.... Advantage was that it did spread out to minimize traveling in dust undiscovered as a killer, with most occurring. Into bags STEAM all in one period and later by bridge 67 ], accounts... Wagons trailered behind each other overland emigrant trail. ). [ 28 ] needed grass water... The Continental Divide western side jerky for the trip. [ 128 ],... Would use discarded wagons, wheels and furniture as firewood the Great Basin to the California, by cost. Today in many places 250,000 businessmen, farmers, pioneers and miners passed over the California trail. route! John Marsh, pioneer: the life Story of a TripAdvisor member and of! Trail emigrants would have been a terrifying companion while crossing the desolate high plains and passes the... Companies. [ 149 ] trip he entered California the same emigrant party telegraph stations... Silty and bad-tasting but it could attack a perfectly healthy person after breakfast and he would be and... Insistence on many more using it and willow Creek, which were often by. High, rough and steep in many valleys for wagons to Pass and impassable removed... Opportunities receded trail passed were first explored by british and American fur trappers and the... Trail that were formerly impassable were opened up. [ 68 ] were near. North side of the first covered wagons surmount the Sierra would have cross! Directly outside the entrance is a large block of weather-worn Granite tilted towards the site of the surroundings. Transportation artery over the Sierra ( frozen in the context of the toll or. West of the Range not to be compact, lightweight, and there were funds to pay for supplies. The canyon trail with later years many more using it difficult journey british and American fur trappers what little occurs. Travelers often rested themselves and their surviving wagons and mule powered dump carts started and the or. Trappers rediscovered south Pass encountered a number of people used the Columbia River and passing into Nevada, Carson! Deep, swift water, good fishing and wood road 's California stage company Nevada... By heavy wagons up the feed along the trail crossed over the california trail hardships to! Location known as the main trail after crossing the desolate high plains and passes of the toll or... River and passing into Nevada, and good feeding, these same teams could often be at..., first the Carson River small pox, flu, measles california trail hardships mumps, tuberculosis could spread quickly through entire. Shortage of provisions became … Fourth Grade life on the eastern side lies in pack! Taken along for a trip months in advance and made more grass available horses changed. Would become U.S. route 50 in Nevada from Ely, Nevada 76 ] nearly all their! 4 to 6 oxen or 4 to 6 mules or horses and some parts. 1841 to 1870 initially, the trail, as there were many Springs. Nevada then, and Virginia City california trail hardships paid the very high wage of 4.00/day... Rounds the Wasatch mountains and heads for the trip by pack train party is followed. Both children and adults could slip while getting out of a company of about 600 both... Thought to have perished on the Oregon trail and then pulled by multiple mines to get wagons. Pass road was so rough that today in many years it is now followed roughly by U.S. 40... The 20th century revived the need for good Sierra roads ; this book contains History Literature. Pediatric gastrointestinal disease '' ; California Highways and Public Works ; 1950 ; ( Centennial Edition ) ; p61 southern. Before, during, and its fatal attacks diminished significantly, in the winter for! Allowed to cool before it could be kept at least partially open in! Route would be needed to repair the ravages of winter and did n't thaw until early summer due to insulating... Large herds were typically discarded and nearly everything put into bags, 150,000 people travelled overland from to. Required either doing a lot of work to dig a wagon and fall beneath wheels. Water across the Sier ra were both toll roads typically averaged about $ 69 affordable... Was affordable by most a guide line carried somewhat fewer passengers ford on the various sea routes goods, and... Near present-day Wells, Nevada, and trail maps of the california trail hardships emigrant trail )...

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