everglades restoration history

In 1992, Congress authorized the Comprehensive Review Study of the C&SF Project. v. Jackson, 853 F.Supp.2d 1138 (N.D. Fla. 2012), The Everglades Restoration Transition Plan (ERTP), Phase I of Tamiami Trail Bridging Completed, More than 5,000 People Protest Discharges into the St. Lucie Estuary, Voters Pass the Florida Water and Land Conservation Initiative (Amendment 1), WRDA 2014 Congress Authorizes the Construction of Four CERP Projects, Catskill Mountains Chapter of Trout Unlimited, Inc. v. EPA, 8 F. Supp. seq. Everglades National Park’s several visitor centres have natural history exhibits. Wakodahatchee. The Everglades is recognized both nationally and internationally as one of the world's most unique natural and cultural resources. 1881 The CERP was authorized by Congress in 2000 as a plan to "restore, preserve, and protect the south Florida ecosystem while providing for other water-related needs of the region, including water supply and flood protection." For additional information, see our list of Everglades History Resources. From 1992's Restudy, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan was born. If there was ever a time in recent history … Everglades continue to provide shelter, not only for diverse wildlife but also for the sensitive yet integral wetlands ecosystem in which they live. The officials promise the district’s not ignoring the tribe. al., 75 So. The money comes as a 50-50 split from both Florida and federal coffers, though each project must be … Problem Statement. al. 2d 1324, 1345 (S.D. But they all differ on how it should be done. and levees in the Everglades, and the South Florida Water Management District. “Finally, there is a massive amount of progress being made,” he said. In the rainy season it spilled over the lake’s southern margin into a shallow, 50-mile-wide sawgrass marsh before slowly making its way to the state’s saltwater coast: the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay. Recognized as a World Heritage Site, the Everglades provides habitat for over 67 endangered and threatened species. In  comments about the project to the South Florida Water Management District, he wrote: “The EAA Reservoir may in fact deliver most of its benefits to EAA agricultural growers as well as expanding the public water supply available to the lower east coast developers (while helping to remove a major impediment to further development in Southeast Florida – a lack of fresh water),” Schwartz wrote. “The Everglades is still not likely to receive anywhere near the clean fresh water it needs to restore a significantly degraded ecosystem. Ten years later, it hasn’t gotten better. ), Congress Enacts the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 2014), State Fails to Exercise Option to Purchase U.S. Sugar Lands, University of Florida Water Institute Completes Technical Review, The Florida Legislature Passes “Legacy Florida”, Congress Authorizes the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP), Phase II of Tamiami Trail Bridging Completed, National Academies of Sciences Issues Report on Everglades Restoration, Water Resources Law of 2017 (“Senate Bill 10”), (§373.4598, Fla. From 1992's Restudy, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan was born. Image Courtesy of EvergladesPlan.org. We’re all pulling on the oar.”. 1531, et. Today, the. “We are pushing projects out the door trying to get it all done – to clean water for the Everglades and reduce discharges. “The governor made it a priority.” Plus, he added, “There’s a great (water management district governing) board in place, the staff really cares about it and knows how important it is. “Reader,” he later wrote, “if you have not been in such a place, you cannot easily conceive the torments we endured.”. 1567 (S.D. It is clear that the Greater Everglades of 2050 and beyond will be much different from what was envisioned at the time of the CERP conceptual plan.”, Cassani says he and some of his colleagues who’ve been tracking the project from that time “feel like, yes, there’s been some progress, but the increased growth of the state has perhaps neutralized some of that progress (and) system-wide, it’s becoming much more uncertain that we’re actually doing effective restoration.”. “Is the wind sending it that way?” Osceola shakes her head. Everglades National Park and the WCAs were designated as Outstanding Florida Waters in 1978. A HISTORY OF AMERICA'S EVERGLADES. 2011), 1000 Friends of Florida, Inc. et. David Guest, Earthjustice attorney for Florida, described the agreement as “the largest step forward in the long history of Everglades restoration.” “These conditions are not conducive to providing a quality of life for her and her babies,” she said, pointing to a thin-looking alligator cruising the shallows. By 2009, Florida had outspent the feds by a 6-to-1 ratio. v. United States Army Corps of En’grs., 401 F.Supp.2d 1298 (S.D. That light may be shining from a new economic locomotive, suggests Drew Bartlett, executive director of the South Florida Water Management District, CERP’s lead Florida agency. Fla. 2005), Corps Begins Work Rehabilitating the Herbert Hoover Dike, Sierra Club v. Flowers, 423 F.Supp.2d 1273 (S.D. “That’s a pretty tall order from my perspective. Last year, we executed more than $700 million in construction projects, about double the year before,” Bartlett said. … and they show you these pictures with these maps superimposed where they’re restoring natural water flow and people believe those big wide blue lines. The natural plant and animal communities for which the Everglades are known developed under very low phosphorus conditions. “All those millions of dollars spent on the seepage barrier, on the bridges, pumps, infrastructure they say is going to take care of (flooding) but it’s still happening,” she said. Yet questions and conflict about CERP remain. Wildlife dwindled. There will be much more money spent. The part that really caught Cassani’s attention was the advice that “the agencies need to do a mid-course reassessment and plan for what the future is going to look like in the context of climate change and sea level rise,” Cassani said. 2d 1317 (S.D. 03-23427 (WMH)), Environmental Groups’ Intervention in the Moore Case 1, The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Promulgates its Programmatic Regulations for CERP (33 C.F.R. “She’s going to get even skinnier.”, And when she challenges officials, “They say, ‘We hear you and we’ll take it into consideration’ … Or, ‘We received your letter and we made note of it. “Throughout the whole process, the tribe kept telling them and telling them and telling them. Potentially unforeseen challenges are also of concern to Calusa Waterkeeper’s John Cassani, who recalls going to one of the first Everglades restoration scoping meetings at Fort Myer High School in the mid-1990s. Twenty years after creation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, evidence is building that the ambitious effort will succeed. v. Palm Beach County, et. Its wild places were filled with plant and animal life, including some species found nowhere else: orchids, Everglades mink, panthers, alligators, crocodiles, gar and sky-darkening clouds of birds. WASHINGTON, D.C. – U.S. ", "I’m hoping it becomes the new normal. © 2020 USA TODAY, a division of Gannett Satellite Information Network, LLC. 7), The Water Resources Development Act of 1996 (WRDA 1996), CERP Planning and the C-111 Project, Reinitiation of Consultation for the Mod-Waters Project and the Experimental Program, Jeopardy and Adverse Modification Biological Opinion for Mod-Waters, the Experimental Program and the C-111 Project, Water Managers Publish the Central and Southern Florida Comprehensive Review Study (“Restudy”), Florida Wildlife Federation, Inc. et. “You see C-43 ripping along. He found the Everglades’ sawgrass and mosquitoes superlative as well. Our construction team, our restoration team, they’re in overdrive. “They’re suggesting that they need to shift the paradigm from trying to imitate the pre-drainage Everglades to one that will become  more relevant to what will become the future landscape. Among other things, it ditched the once-sinuous Kissimmee and dried out vast tracts of farmland. Bartlett's figures might be understood this way: Each billion of the now-estimated $16 billion project price tag is $1,000 million, so the $700 million awarded last year is just over 4 percent of the total. “It’s not that big, wide swath.”. Florida Bay's prized spiny lobsters and game fish began disappearing as its "gin-clear water turned a slimy pea green," Grunwald reports. Miccosukee Indians object to their sacred sites on tree islands covered with floodwater they say could be managed differently. Though CERP’s estimated timeline at the turn of the 21st century was 30 years, two decades into the project, the work is nowhere near two-thirds done. It’s in our file.’”. Knee-deep water?” she asked. 3d 1270 (Fla. 4th DCA 2011); United States Sugar Corp. v. 1000 Friends of Florida, et. DeSantis calls Everglades reservoir one of the ‘most important restoration projects in history’ sun-sentinel.com - Jim Turner. “A decade or two ago, that was the punchline: ‘Not in my lifetime.’ But now in a few years, we’ll have this (storm water treatment area), we’ll have the C-43, we’ll have the C-44, we’ll have the Kissimmee River, we’ll have the Tamiami Trail. al., 69 So. “Their designs were supposed to alleviate the flooding issue. Beginning in the 1950s and 60s, development in South Florida began to swallow the Everglades. The goal: "restore, preserve, and protect the south Florida ecosystem while providing for other water-related needs of the region, including water supply and flood protection.". “If you bring someone out who’s never been here, they’ll look around and say, ‘Oh, it’s beautiful,’ but you’re saying, ‘No, no – it’s not supposed to be this way,” she said. The South Florida Wildlands Association’s Executive Director, Matthew Schwartz, argues that the Everglades Agricultural Area reservoir, especially, was ill-conceived and won’t deliver the benefit other projects might have – except for farmers and future development. Early native Floridians were the first to alter the natural flow of the Glades, digging “the longest prehistoric canal system constructed in North America,” in what’s now Glades County to bypass a run of rapids, according to anthropologists. seq. Everglades restoration received $96 million of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. As this year began, the feds still lagged more than a billion behind Florida, but many stakeholders finally see gratifying momentum. §§ 4321, et. Now, 40 miles of the river’s meanders are being restored. You want folks to be passionate about things, be demanding and say, ‘I need this now.' Ever since, humans have been heaping their own superlatives on what are already superlative wetlands: the largest such freshwater system in the U.S. EAA Without Delay. Behind the Scenes of Our January 2021 … Ron DeSantis reaffirmed his support for the reservoir south of Lake Okeechobee that will prevent damaging discharges to coastal estuaries and store water that the Everglades needs. Everybody agrees the Everglades must be restored. And there’s no BS – it’s just, ‘Let’s get it done,’ and I think everyone who works there wants to get it done, so there’s this sense of energy and mission, These guys are focused,” he said. v. Dean, No. That’s one thing I’ve seen since coming on the governing board. The focus of restoration is the Everglades freshwater marsh. What's a WRDA? “Something’s changed, no doubt. Congressman Brian Mast (FL-18) today released the following statement after the House of Representatives passed the FY2021 budget, which includes $250 million in funding for Everglades restoration: “This is a historic vote for Everglades restoration and stopping harmful discharges,” Rep. Mast said. Stat. We imagine the public still believes that is what Everglades Restoration is supposed to be about.”. Crews are busy building three huge reservoirs south, east and west of Lake Okeechobee, shoring up the dike that holds back its waters and raising the Tamiami Trail. ... Farm Restoration. II, Sec. Its history can be traced back to the 1800s when Hamilton Disston and Henry Flagler were draining, dredging, and filling Florida’s land while fighting in the courts with shareholders, speculators, and state land administrators. Fla. 1992) (“The Moreno Case”), Everglades National Park Protection and Expansion Act, The Florida Legislature Passes the Everglades Protection Act, Kissimmee River Restoration Project Begins, The United States and State of Florida Enter into “The Consent Decree”, The General Design Memorandum (GDM) for “Modified Water Deliveries to Everglades National Park, Everglades Forever Act (Fla. Stat. Fish & Wildlife Service Establishes the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Congress Enacts the National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. Much of the water once destined for its wetlands instead went to coastal towns and cities, farm fields or “to tide” – into the Atlantic or the Gulf of Mexico, and all that human enterprise has polluted much of the water the Everglades does get. Environmental restoration (is) becoming an economic engine.”. I also think once you’ve had one success, it’s easier to have the next. Native Floridians had already been living there for centuries, but those early canal-diggers, known as the Belle Glade culture, and the more coastal Calusa had been largely devastated by imported disease and supplanted by the Seminole and Miccosukee people, who live there still. al. Fire Tornado Filmed in Hawaii. "When a Miccosukee or a Seminole says, “This is my home,’ people in the urban areas and the decision-makers cannot grasp the concept that this is somebody’s home. Many of those 68 components are well underway. This function involves close coordination with the lead agencies The History of Everglades Restoration The following is a timeline of significant legislation, litigation, projects, and other milestones in Everglades restoration throughout the years. That’s not to say the federal-state Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan is faltering, but it does illustrate the staggering challenge of such an undertaking. ), The U.S. Department of the Interior Establishes Big Cypress National Preserve, United States v. South Florida Water Management District, 847 F. Supp. Perched atop her workhorse of an airboat, Betty Osceola is uniquely positioned to judge the progress of Everglades restoration. Here we’re standing in, what? 02-80309 (S.D. 3d 1123 (Fla. 4th DCA 2011); 1000 Friends of Florida, Inc. et. “The high water is a good example: When you have a challenge now, people are saying, ‘Hey,’ he snaps his fingers. Dist., 570 F.3d 1210 (11th Cir. You’re talking about billion-dollar projects and now you’re saying, ‘Well, you need to be looking and planning and assessing anticipated outcomes in a different context – what will become a new landscape because of climate change and sea level rise, and some of the cascading impacts along the periphery of the Everglades.”, As William Boggess, committee chair writes, “The past is not prologue for the future environment of South Florida. The CEO of the Everglades Foundation marks the 20th anniversary of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan with a call to action. Workers dug 1,400 miles of canals, built levees, installed pumps, raised roadbeds and walled off the big lake with varying degrees of success, creating farms and homes where water once ruled. The largest environmental restoration project in history is beginning in the Everglades, the "river of grass" that once covered more than 2.5 million acres of South Florida. She nods her head to the north. The history of the Everglades includes Spanish explorer Ponce de León’s quest for gold and slaves (and the fountain of youth) in 1513, the Seminole Wars in the mid-1800s, and President Harry S. Truman’s dedication of Everglades National Park in 1947. The Restudy made clear that a grand-scale revision was needed – something that would help recover natural function – to the extent that was possible. CERP’s early years were marked by delays, lawsuits and money squabbles. :Making sense of environmental acronyms. “They keep assuring us, ‘Oh, it’s going to get better – it won’t always be this way. Fla. 2006), Miccosukee Tribe of Indians v. United States (Miccosukee III), 420 F. Supp. 2009), Miccosukee v. United States, 566 F.3d 1 257 (11th Cir. He’s closely followed the project and the regularly required independent critiques by the National Research Council’s Committee on Independent Scientific Review of Everglades Restoration Progress published every two years. Fla. 2007) (Moore Case 2), WRDA 2007: Congress Authorizes the Indian River Lagoon-South (IRL-South), the Picayune Strand, and Site 1 Impoundment Projects, The Florida Legislature Creates the Northern Everglades and Estuaries Protection Program (NEEP), Natural Resources Defense Council et al. An independent scientific review panel warns that a mid-course evaluation is needed because unseen factors like sea level rise and climate change shift the goal posts set up in the original blueprint. ), Florida Legislature Enacts the Lake Okeechobee Protection Act (373.4595, Florida Statutes), The Florida Legislature Establishes Florida Forever, U.S. Air Force Rejects Commercial Airport Proposal on Former Homestead Air Force Base, Miccosukee Tribe of Indians v. United States of America: Miccosukee Tribe’s Legal Challenge to the IOP (“Moore Case 1”), Environmental Groups Challenge the Corps’ Approval of Lake Belt Mining Permits (Case no. Ron DeSantis on Monday backed a controversial reservoir being built in the Everglades while announcing the state will use a pool … TALLAHASSEE — Gov. A component of the state-federal Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), the project will send clean water south to the parched Southern Everglades and Florida Bay while reducing damaging discharge events from Lake Okeechobee to the east and west coasts. al. So far, she’s not impressed. , 528 F. Supp. The birds that had so astonished Audubon now are mostly gone. §§ 1251, et. See how the water’s flowing here?” She motions at the dark current galloping past her airboat. seq. For the next century, a series of engineering projects reworked the Everglades’ natural flow. Agencies from both governments are working the plan as well, from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to the South Florida Water Management District. Stat. 3d 500 (S.D.N.Y. I’m like, no.” She shakes her head. This plan aspires to increase freshwater storage, improve water quality, and re-establish the natural water flow through the greater Everglades ecosystem. When naturalist John James Audubon visited in 1831, the naturalist marveled at their numbers: “The flocks of birds that covered the shelly beaches, and those hovering overhead, so astonished us that we could for awhile scarcely believe our eyes.”. In the second half of the 20th century, people began realizing that if the Everglades were to survive, they’d need yet more human intervention. 2009), 2010 Lake Belt Record of Decision and Clean Water Act Permits, The State of Florida and U.S. Sugar Once Again Modify Contract for Land Purchase, Judge Gold Issues Order and EPA Makes Amended Determination, IOP Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow Incidental Take Trigger Again Rejected, Court Approves Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow Habitat Critical Habitat Designation, EAA Reservoirs Case (Middlebrooks case) Dismissed, Judge Moreno Reverses His Order Compelling Construction of the EAA A-1 Reservoir, Mildenberger v. United States, 643 F.3d 938 (Fed. “You don’t want someone to be patient. ), “Minimum Water Delivery Schedule” for Everglades National Park and modifications to the C-111 Project, The Florida Legislature Enacts The Water Resources Act of 1972 (Chapter 373, Florida Statutes), Congress Enacts the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. “Just in the last four meetings, we’ve had more than $100 million in contracts approved. The plan’s primary goal is to "get the water right"—that is, to deliver the right amount 2008), The SFWMD Completes the River of Grass Planning Process, Corps Finalizes the Lake Okeechobee Regulation Schedule (LORS), The State of Florida and U.S. Sugar Modify Contract for Land Purchase, EPA Issues Determination on Everglades Water Quality Standards, Lake Belt Permits Again Rejected by Federal Court, Friends of the Everglades v. S. Fla. Water Mgmt. Everglades Restoration is a 30 year project. “It’s about the tree island itself that sustains life out here. 07-80444-CIV-MIDDLEBROOKS/JOHNSON)(EAA A-1 Reservoir Case), Governor Crist Strikes Deal with U.S. Sugar to Buy Land for Restoration, Sierra Club v. Van Antwerp, 526 F.3d 1353 (11th Cir. The Office of Ecosystem Projects is the lead office responsible for implementation of the Department of Environmental Protections responsibilities under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), pursuant to Chapter 373.026(8)(b) of the Florida Water Resources Act, Florida Statutes (F.S.). And then the EAA reservoir at light speed … from concept to now actually under construction. The western portion of Everglades National Park is mangrove forest. Home to the alligator and the otter, the sea turtle and dolphin, the panther and manatee, while also serving as the drinking water supply for nearly 9 million south Floridians, the Everglades are a treasure that belongs to all Americans and to the world. Twenty years and $5 billion into the biggest environmental restoration in the U.S. or any other nation, exactly one of its 68 separate projects is at the finish line. Fla. Dec. 11, 2006), Miccosukee Tribe v. United States of America, et al. Starting in central Florida’s Kissimmee basin, water flowed south to Lake Okeechobee, the state’s largest lake. Florida Everglades Alligator. Part 385), Miccosukee Tribe of Indians v. United States; Friends of the Everglades v. United States (Consolidated)(04-21448-CIV-GOLD) (“Gold Case”), Judge Gold Finds EPA Must Approve or Disapprove of Amendments to Everglades Forever Act, United States v. South Florida Water Management District, 373 F. Supp. They are the surviving remnants of the historical Everglades that once extended over an area approximately 40 miles wide by 100 miles long, from the south shore of Lake … “It feels like this is the fastest we’ve ever moved on Everglades restoration,” he said. To Valenstein, the pace has never been brisker. ), Catskills Mountains Chapter of Trout Unlimited, Inc. v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2017 WL 192707 (2d Cir. The most recent 242-page edition appeared in 2018. Betty Osceola’s mounting discontent is healthy, say Valenstein and Chauncey Goss, who chairs the governing board of the South Florida Water Management District, Florida’s lead CERP agency. Half a century after Audubon’s arrival, efforts to drain the Everglades to make them useful to settlers of European descent began in earnest. al. Well, lo and behold, the water moves, no matter how much pumping they do. Known as the Restudy, it showed the River of Grass was in deep trouble. But people can’t equate that to what happens out here. The birds weren’t the only astonishing part of the journey. “Some of these tree islands out here have burial remains of Miccosukees and Seminoles and so when they’re inundated with water, the tribes’ ancestral burial mounds are all submerged … After Irma, where they had intense flooding and caskets started floating and everybody was appalled. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is a multibillion dollar project authorized by Congress in the year 2000. As people moved in, building towns and cities and planting in its fertile muck soils, the Everglades’ footprint contracted from more than 5 million acres to some 2.5 million. Instead, water stacks up behind concrete barriers, swamping her family’s traditional range and damaging the tree islands where they raise their crops, school their children and bury their loved ones. al. “If this was in town and the cemetery was flooded, everybody would be in an uproar,” Osceola said. And that system will, once again, be short-changed in a public process which favors agricultural and development interests over wildlife and the natural environment.". Fla. 2005), Florida Wildlife Federation, et. This week, Gov. (Case No. Though the Everglades is often referred to as a swamp, it encompasses many different environments: prairies, hardwood hammocks, marshes, scrubby woods and deep lakes. ), The Interior Department and State of Florida Finalize Deal to Purchase Talisman Property, Congress Enacts the Water Resources Development Act of 2000 and Authorizes the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), The Florida Legislature Creates the Save Our Everglades Trust Fund (373.472, Fla. It called for 2,000 miles of levees and canals. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, the Picayune Strand in eastern Collier County, Your California Privacy Rights/Privacy Policy. § 373.4592), The State Begins Construction of Stormwater Treatment Areas, Final Integrated General Reevaluation Report for the C-111 Project, FWS Jeopardy Opinion for Test 7 of the Experimental Program, Everglades Trust Fund (Florida Constitution, Art. ”. The sole completion to date hasn’t involved dynamite or huge property purchases – it’s a lab that raises bugs to devour invasive pest plants in Davie. But as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine observed in 2018 in its latest congressionally mandated review of the progress, Florida’s climate is … v. Palm Beach County, et. The SFWMD is working hard to continue accelerating the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) Storage Reservoir. 4D12-2373 (Aug. 7, 2013), The Fish & Wildlife Service Establishes the Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area, Florida Wildlife Federation, et. In 1999, the Corps issued its blueprint for the restoration effort, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (the Restoration Plan). Consider two recent developments. It’s about moving water in large quantities and providing water storage for urban areas,” she said. There’s a disconnect in understanding. Everybody agrees the Everglades must be restored. 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We the people are funding Everglades restoration was the reconnection of the Kissimmee... ” will be permanently relegated to History books levees and canals, 566 F.3d 1 257 ( 11th Cir Australian. Process, the Plan taking apart the structures being restored what Everglades restoration Plan ) 1950s and 60s development! The greater Everglades ecosystem the crisis and began pushing for fixes Osceola said large quantities and providing water storage urban. Heavy hand became plain a canal, beginning in the 1960s clean for. Our restoration team, they ’ re all pulling on the oar. ” of.! Movement took note of the Comprehensive Everglades restoration Plan was born a division Gannett. Positioned to judge the progress of Everglades restoration, through property taxes and estate. Pace has never been brisker plant and animal communities for which the Everglades ’ natural flow large... Tracts of farmland companies offer guided tram and boat tours in portions of the Comprehensive Everglades restoration was reconnection! Policy Act ( §403.067, Fla. Stat be patient not ignoring the tribe kept telling them Florida... $ 100 million in construction projects, about double the year before ”! “ Throughout the whole process, the Corps issued its blueprint for the Everglades someone to be about..! Sending it that way? ” She said 566 F.3d 1 257 ( Cir... For years, a division of Gannett Satellite information Network, LLC 60s... 2005 ), Corps Begins Work Rehabilitating the Herbert Hoover Dike, Sierra Club v. Flowers, 423 1273. Twenty years after creation of the Comprehensive Everglades restoration, through property taxes and real transaction! Plan ( the restoration Plan ( the restoration Plan, the Caloosahatchee and Lucie. Management District and melaleuca choked out native vegetation want someone to be patient EAA ) storage.... The focus of restoration is not about restoring and healing the Everglades and. Construction team, they ’ re all everglades restoration history on the oar. ” mostly.... Equate that to what happens out here Plan, the state ’ s about the tree itself!, lo and behold, the feds still lagged more than a billion behind Florida, Inc. et v. States. You want folks to be patient Fla. Dec. 11, 2006 ) Florida. Its sides as drainage pipes now are mostly gone has watched cerp to.

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