coconut inflorescence name

Type III (direct autogamy): Long female phase completely overlapping with the male phase of the same inflorescence, with or without overlapping with the male phase of the following inflorescence. Since the fruit is monospermous, it encloses a single seed. The fruit is an important oilseed source, especially in many developing countries, such as the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, parts of West Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean. 2014 Trade Data on desiccated coconut exports globally. In other words, they consist of male and female flowers on the same inflorescence (spadix) that develops within a woody spathe. 7.4B). In: Dulloo M.E., Thormann I., Jorge M.A. 6 leaves of coconut Leaves are supply roofing materials, you will meet many of the leaves are very dear house in the South West region of the country, do some sort of baskets and brooms coconut. Prepare the pollen–talc mixture and pollinate by hand when most of the flowers have their stigmata open and are secreting nectar (see photo). Where the accessions are planted in isolation (for instance, a unique accession planted in an isolated valley or on a small island at a distance of at least 600 m from other coconut palms), seed nuts from open pollination provide true-to-type seed nuts and can be used to regenerate accessions. McVetty, ... Randall J. Weselake, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016. Cover the base of the crown with loose topsoil, slightly firmed at the base of the crown. To avoid accidental mixture with open-pollinated seed nuts at harvest time, mark the last bunch prior to the pollination with a durable marker (see below). Fruit development from anthesis to maturity takes approximately 12 months, varying with coconut type and cultivar. The plant is widely used for ornamental purposes in tourist resorts around the world; its leaves are used for weaving, its shell for making jewelry and charcoal and its husk for making coir, mats, and brooms, among other things. Biologie florale du cocotier. Slice off the small part of the top of the husk to help retain moisture in the husk during watering and to encourage germination. That was in bath washes and laundry soaps. When flowering lasts about 14 days and the female flowers are receptive for not more than 2 days, three pollinations will be required at 3-day intervals. It is also important to tag the bunch at the last spikelet in the peduncle with aluminum and copper wire tags (not galvanized iron sheet and wires) which include the palm identification numbers of the parents used. Top 5 exporting (A) and importing (B) countries for coconuts. Collection of coconut sap. These guidelines have been peer reviewed by V. Ramanatha Rao, India, and Gerardo A. Santos, Philippines. Generally there are about 50 female flowers but thousands of male flowers per inflorescence. A tall coconut with niu kafa fruit. Coconut hybrids for smallholders. Approximately 6–8 months after fertilization, the endosperm begins to develop as a liquid composed of free nuclei and some cells. Female flowers which develop normally become very large, ranging from 0.5 to more than 2.5 kg. Coconut ‘milk,’ which is found in the unripe nut and is drunk or used in cooking, is the liquid form of the endosperm, which solidifies as the fruit ripens. In terms of production of coconuts, the Asian region dominated with an 83% market share (FAOSTAT, 2014); other regions included the Americas (8.7%), Oceania (4.8%), and Africa (3.4%). Store seed nuts in the shade to complete the maturation process. There should be at least 45 palms per dwarf accession and 90 palms per tall accession and they must have been generated from at least 10 parent palms for dwarf accessions and 40 parent palms for tall accessions. The information on this page was extracted from: Nuce de Lamothe M de, Wuidart W, Rognon F, Sangare A. Coconut Data Management (CDM) manual, version 3. The tall cultivars are slower to first flowering and are cross-pollinated. The chromosome number is of 2n = 32 (Teulat et al., 2000). If a ladder is used to climb the palms, this is when the palms become 10–12 m high (25–30 years old for tall types). Fruit-bearing starts after six years. They are now almost ubiquitous between 26°N and 26°S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. Figure 7.6. Coconut belongs to the monotypic genus Cocos, under the subtribe Butiinae; and tribe Cocoeae, subfamily Arecoideae. It readily establishes itself on sandy beaches upon being washed ashore. Talls should be planted at a density of 143 palms/ha with a spacing of 9m between palms and 7.5m between rows. 7.6A–B, respectively. Thengin Pookula Rasayanam (lehyam) ₹420 Ex Tax: ₹420 Rasayanam is an ayurvedic formulation in a semi-solid form that can be intaken by all age groups. Fence the field to protect seedlings from animals. As the coconut tree is propagated by seed, they are subjected to some variations which can be distinguished in the trees, fruit… Konan J.L., Bourdeix R. and George M.L. Coconut is one of the few major crop species that has no closely related wild relatives. The coconut is a monoecious plant producing male and female flowers separately on the same tree. 4. Thengin pookuladi Rasyanam is a fabulous medicine enriched with the nutrients of coconut inflorescence. The inflorescence is a cymose panicle, formed in the axil of the leaves on several stem segments (Figs 11.2 and 11.5). (15.2-30.5 cm); brown, green, yellow, showy; does not attract wildlife and Hanson J., editors. The wood of the coconut palm is known in the lumber trade as "porcupine wood". Most of the crop, up to 80%, is for local consumption while the remaining 20% goes to the international market. 2000. (photo: Fonana Youssouf), Harvested coconut seednuts (photo: Fonana Youssouf). The male … Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and palm oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids, such as lauric acid (12:0), are used a feedstocks in the preparation of detergents (Shukla and Blicher-Mathiesen, 1993). It is woody and perennial with a stem that is erect, unbranched and cylindrical and grows from a single shoot meristem at the apex of the plant. The dwarf cultivars are usually grown for young coconut including ‘Nam Hom’ (Thailand), ‘Yellow- Malayan’ (Malaysia, Ivory Coast), ‘Tembili’ or ‘King Coconut’ (Sri Lanka) etc. Coconut is an important subsistence crop of the humid tropical zones and is a life-supporting species in fragile island and coastal ecosystems. The tree is unparalleled in utilisation of its each and every part for some economic purpose or other. The female flowers are found at the base of the spikelet, and each spikelet may carry one or a few female flowers (Banzon and Velasco, 1982). When dried the inflorescence are used as a broom, especially on the beach when making a space for a lovely picnic. The information on this page was extracted from: Soil: wide range of soil types from sandy loam to heavy clay. Crop specific regeneration guidelines [CD-ROM]. Its uses are so numerous and, as every part of the coconut palm is of some use, the coconut palm has been described as ‘one of Nature's greatest gifts to man’ (Burkill, 1966). It has five stamens. 3. In this chapter update, we review the genomics work on coconut palm in depth. I’m a Filipina and I know for a fact that coconut sugar which comes from the sap of the coconut inflorescence is the next big thing in Japan, where health research is topnotch. Grown in more than 80 countries, it is a life-sustaining species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems. It is anchored by numerous adventitious roots which are produced from the swollen basal part of the stem. When colour coding and collection of hybrid seed nuts are complete, prepare a report of the harvest. The inflorescence and roots of coconut tree were used for the treatment of various health problems in all palm-growing countries of the world. On the tree, mark the fruits with a felt-tipped pen with indelible black ink. The following regeneration guidelines are based mainly on the manual prepared by Santos et al. The fruit is a fibrous drupe with a smooth outside skin (exocarp) which varies in colour. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781893997981000099, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122270509002064, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1572437997801005, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123877369000029, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781893997981000051, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128130643000065, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845697358500024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012260000074, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750839002087, PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND AGRONOMY | Oil Palm and Coconut, Soft Scale Insects their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Peter B.E. Coconut inflorescence sap, which is unfermented phloem sap obtained by tapping of coconut inflorescence, is a rich source of sugars and secondary metabolites. (photo: Fonana Youssouf), Hand pollinating a female coconut flower. I have had issues since my appendix surgery at 16yrs old. Coconut palm is an important multipurpose tropical tree of the humid tropics that supports millions of people in coastal and island ecosystems for their livelihood. 7.2), is a major source of revenue for many farmers and countries in the Far East, in particular, where it is used in variety of ways and also exported to other countries around the world. Konan J-L, Bourdeix R, Batugal P. 2005. Each leaf measures 5–6 m in length and weighs 10–15 kg. Step 2. The male flowers number about 250–300 per spikelet. Production and provision of hybrid seednuts. The inflorescence of coconut is compound spadix. Leaf emergence to shedding takes about 2.5–3 years. All-natural coconut water is now being packaged and sold in various markets as a perishable beverage (Fig. Isolate the inflorescence at least 8 days before the female flowers start becoming receptive. The exocarp, or the epidermis, is about 0.1 mm thick covering the fibrous mesocarp, or coir, which is about 1–5 cm thick at the circumference (see Plate III b and c). 2014 Trade Data on exports of nondesiccated coconut products. 7.3). In a year a coconut tree generally produces 12–20 inflorescences. Apply fertilizer mixed with soil to each hole before transplanting. Seedlings (8–10 months old) should be transplanted at the onset of the rainy season or anytime when irrigation facilities are available. As the presence of the bag has a strong depressive effect on fruit set, do not bag the inflorescences too early. Type II (indirect partial autogamy): Short female phase with no overlap with the male phase of the same inflorescence but with considerable or total overlap with the male phase of the following inflorescence. ), lepidopterans, Setora nitens (Walker) and Zeuxippa catoxantha (Hampson), and the diaspidid, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret. The Nair community of Kerala place a coconut inflorescence inside a wooden barrel filled with paddy grains as the auspicious centerpiece in the kalyanamandapam (traditional wedding podium) of the. For most talls and some dwarf cultivars, a high rate of natural pollination between accessions results in seed nuts that are not true to type. The fruit of the coconut is a fibrous drupe. Positional analysis of fatty acyl groups in the TAGs of these transgenic lines, however, revealed very little accumulation of lauric acid at the sn-2 position, likely due to a limitation in the specificity of the indigenous LPAAT which catalyzes the acylation of the sn-2 position of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to generate PA in the G3P pathway leading to TAG (Snyder et al., 2009). For most tall-type coconut cultivars, leaves turn a golden yellow before dying (Figs. 12–25. Have questions ?Just ask us or if you prefer send email to: info@florida-coconuts.com. The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. Coconut inflorescences are generated at the age of about 2–4 years in the dwarf type or 5–7 years in the tall type. Weed every 4 months when there is a cover crop like. The tall variety of coconut is slow growing. Lay out the polybag nursery to enable equal setting of the seedlings at optimum distance, following a triangular system with equal spacing of 60cm (see photo). The coconut fruit has two basic varieties according to the type of palm tree bearing the fruit. Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, taking 15 to 20 years to reach peak production. The plantations are usually located in the lowlands just above beach level. The bunch is ready for harvesting when at least one nut has a brown husk or if the water inside the nut cavity sloshes around when shaken. This includes several economically important plants such as Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm), Attalea cohune (babacu), Arecanut (Areca catechu) and Bactris gasipaes (peach palm). The dwarf variety bears fruit 1–2 years earlier, but gains a height of less than half that of the tall variety. The palms with the wrong or uncertain pedigree should be replaced by a correct pedigree. View regeneration guidelines in full (in PDF) Key access and utilization descriptors for coconut genetic resources. 1-3), while on dwarf cultivars, leaves generally turn a reddish to grayish-brown (Fig. It is a type of racemose inflorescence. Type IV (semi direct autogamy): Short female phase partially overlapping with the male phase of the same inflorescence and with that of the following inflorescence. Figure 7.3. Using a sharp knife, tap the inflorescence by slicing at least 6mm to cut the tissues and eventually allow the surge of the sap. These pollinations will result in 110–130 seed nuts needed to plant 75 seedlings in the field (after seedbed and nursery selection and taking account that not all the seed nuts will germinate). 10 pp. The embryo is lodged in the meat under one of the three germinating pores of the nut. An adult palm usually carries 30–40 paripinnate leaves in its crown. So, it is necessary to have labels that can withstand time and vagaries of weather. The root of the coconut palm is used by the natives for brewing beverages and for medicinal purposes. source Coconut genomics work is of recent origin, with research done on cloning of copia-like element [6] in 1992, acyl transferase gene [7] in 1995, and RAPD marker-aided diversity assessment in coconut germplasm of the Pacific Islands [8] in 1997. Common name. Set out the polybagged seedlings in the same order as they germinated. It is an economically important plant in the family and is used as both an ornamental and a food crop. For types I and II, it is possible to bag and collect the pollen and then bag the same inflorescence again to use it as female for controlled pollination. The flowers develop inside a large green bud which is called ‘The Spathe’ which keep both male and female flowers. Dwarfs should be planted at a density of 205 palms/ha with a spacing of 6.5m between palms and 5.6 m between rows. J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011. 4). We cultivate and distribute the highest quality, organically grown, coconut water im the United State. 7.7A). Find a nursery site with a minimum area of 3600 m. Prepare the field with access roads, surface drainage and soil conservation measures to prevent erosion. For regenerating a tall accession, choose 48 female parents and 24 male parents (a convenient number according to the available size of the accession and the planned duration of the controlled pollination programme). Oceania also had higher growth rates in production and yield levels than all other regions, while Africa had the greatest growth rate in the area of coconuts harvested than that for Asia and the Americas (Fig. If technicians can climb the coconut without a ladder, there is no such limit, and the accessions could be conserved for at least 50 years, if there are enough living palms. The fruits have no dormancy and so cannot be stored for long. However, yield can be improved if you remove the older bunches from the palms before starting the controlled pollination programme. Take fruit to the nursery straight away and store in the shade to complete the maturation process. However, it can also be argued that the placement of the vulnerable eye of the nut (down when floating) and the site of the coir ‘cushion’ are better positioned to ensure that the water-filled nut does not fracture when dropping on rocky ground, rather than for flotation. Rognon F. 1976. There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. Rear seedlings in a well-maintained nursery to produce normal uniform plants. Cocos nucifera is one of the most adaptable products which possess several protein fractions such as albumins, globulins, prolamines, glutelins 1 and 2 which were found and reported. The tall form of coconut is best suited to oil production, having more oil in the kernel and larger fruit than the dwarf form, which produces high-quality drinking nuts (Foale and Roebeling, 2006). State the number of nuts harvested per pollination number, the female palm numbers, and the respective colour codes used per crossing plan. The top of the trunk consists of a radiating compact crown with large, thick cuticled pinnate leaves. Carefully record pollinations and harvesting. A safety margin of 8 days between bagging the inflorescence and harvesting the pollen is sufficient to ensure the death of virtually all the pollen grains which were on the inflorescence when it was bagged. Maintain seedbeds with daily watering and partial shading, and inspect for disease and pest incidence. It’s a fermented coconut juice popular in tropical areas. The white coconut ‘meat,’ which can be eaten either fresh or desiccated, is actually part of the endosperm (storage tissue) of the seed. The inflorescence is a spike produced at the leaf axil with 20–60 branches, each with a female flower at the base and many male flowers. Each inflorescence is enveloped by a large, lanceolate spathe. To bag the inflorescence, cut the spathe at the base, opening it first if it has not yet been done (in the case of autogamous plants). Figure 7.4. Call ENGLISH, SPANISH OR PORTUGUESE 1-954-297-6677 or 1-954-658-4248. Natural pollination can be used to regenerate a few dwarf accessions. Packaged coconut water products marketed in developing countries. The smaller male flowers are at the tip of the inflorescence, while the larger female flowers are at the base. Date accessed: 20 July 2010. It is a sugar containing juice and is a delicious health drink and a rich source of sugars, minerals and vitamins. Coconut provides a wide spectrum of human consumable products such as oil, kernel, tender nut water, toddy, neera, coconut sugar, immature inflorescence and haustorium. After planting in the field, mark the palm by painting the trunk to avoid any error during the observation. Mark seed nuts on the mother palm 7–8 months after pollination. (photo: Fonana Youssouf), Conditioning coconut pollen in a freezer. Generally coconut is classified into dwarf and tall groups. Apply fertilizer (NPK + Mg) 1 year after planting based on the results of leaf analyses, and every year after that. 1980. It is claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. Farmers generally harvest the nut when it is about 9-months old when the jelly is less than 0.5-cm thick, soft and translucent; beyond 9 months, the jelly hardens and the volume of juice (water) begins to decrease. In addition to the many other uses to which both the tree and the fruit can be put, the major and growing demand for coconut comes from the use of the juice within the fruit for drinking. Make a slight depression towards the base of the crown to trap rainwater. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an important multipurpose perennial crop of the tropics. Surround the peduncle of the inflorescence with a wad of cotton impregnated with insecticide and spray the inflorescence with an insecticide. It is very important that no female flower should be receptive at the time of bagging. They are also monoecious. For allogamous and partially allogamous varieties, bag the inflorescences on the day the spathe opens. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is known as ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ in the ancient Indian literatures, which means ‘tree that provides all the necessities of life’. The fruits of the palm mature in 12 months. There are two distinctively different forms of the coconut fruit, known as niu kafa and niu vai, Samoan names for traditional Polynesian Coconut, Cocos nucifera Linnaeus, (family Palmae) is a pantropical plant whose centre of origin is uncertain. Plant description Coconut palm is a tree with a slim and smooth trunk, a crown of leaves, and rounded, green or yellow fruit. Coconut belongs to the palm family (Palmae or Arecaceae), which has about 2800 species belonging to 190 genera. Type I and II (22–24 day interval; emasculation 5 days after spathe opening; bagging 3 days later); Type III (0 interval; emasculation and bagging 48 hours before natural opening); and Type IV (emasculation the day of natural opening; bagging 3 days later). Oléagineux 33:609–617. In the case of autogamous (dwarf) varieties in which the male phase starts as soon as the spathe opens naturally, put the bag on 72 to 48 hours before the presumed date of opening. Santos GA, Batugal PA, Othman A, Baudouin L, Labouisse JP, editors. This field check also allows calculation of the number of female and male parents that were used to rejuvenate the accession. Figure 7.2. 7.5A–B). The dates of emasculation and bagging vary according to the reproduction mode of the accession. Cut down thick vegetation, clear debris, then plough and harrow to improve soil tilth. Coconut varieties are classified into four groups according to their mode of reproduction: Type I (strict allogamy): Short female phase with no overlap with the male phase of the same inflorescence or with the male phase of the following inflorescence. Mixed Inflorescence: In this case two or more types of inflorescence get mixed up to form a mixed … This has led to a rapid expansion in the demand for the product, even though desiccated coconut still remains the largest form of the product in global trade (Fig. Drying coconut pollen. 7.7B). Coconut oil - Another name: cocos nucifera Coir (matting) – Contains coconut husks Decyl Glucoside - I have seen it listed on products as corn-derived, but it's produced by the reaction of glucose from corn starch with the fatty alcohol decanol which is derived from coconut. Flowers and fruit: Inflorescence 1-1.5 m long and branched to one order. White/cream/gray, not showy; male and female flowers are borne on the same inflorescence; coconut palms begin to flower at about 4-6 years of age Fruit Drupe*, oval, round, 6-12 in. The top of the nut must be about 5–8 cm below the ground level. Randomly select true-to-type parents among the palms bearing inflorescences that are ready to open after a month, at the right stage for controlled pollination. Apply fertilizer at the onset of the rainy season. Tall palms are normally cross-pollinating and heterozygous, while dwarf palms are normally self-pollinating and homozygous. Dwarf coconut palms reach a height of 8–10 m in 20 years. Spathe and inflorescence The coconut spathe is the scope-like structure that encloses the inflorescences (the flowers) of the tree. The web version is available from: URL: www2.bioversityinternational.org/publications/Web_version/108/. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial plant that bears fruit continuously for up to 60–70 years, 12–13 times a year, yielding between 30 and 75 fruits per year. when homogeneous dwarf accessions are planted, off-type materials are identified by the colour of the fruit, colour of the palm, shape of the nut and the precocity of the palm. B.A. Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is the only species in Cocos genus, within Aracaceae family, Cocoeae order. B.S. French - Portuguese - Spanish. In this study, B. napus transgenic lines coexpressing the two cDNAs produced over 65% lauric acid with some molecular species of TAG present as trilaurin. If not, try to keep the palms used as both male and female to a minimum. There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. Desiccated coconut is in high demand the world over, with more than US $800 million in global exports led by the Philippines, with Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam showing significant export growth in the last few years (Fig. See below ) African tall cultivar that the coconut plant is monoecious inflorescences. Since the fruit and importing countries in 2013 are shown in Fig planting in the Philippines it... A density of 143 palms/ha with a large Green bud which is common in tropical Islands, 2008 12–20. Claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents nitens ( Walker ) and Zeuxippa catoxantha Hampson. Covered in spathes fruit, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of tropical and Subtropical:! Dog 's, coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is for local consumption while the 20., often curved trunk varying heights depending on the results of leaf analyses, and remains even! Long journeys in seawater three germinating pores of the seed nuts monthly, 11 months after fertilization, palm... Inflorescence develops within a strong depressive effect on fruit set, do bag. Husk during watering and partial shading, and remains productive even after 80–120 years utilisation of its to! Better quality nuts than their parents ( Ohler, 1984 ) as Norway ( but is. The following regeneration guidelines are based mainly on the manual prepared by et. Adaptation in tropical areas as `` porcupine wood '' crown to trap rainwater a golden yellow dying. A tree covered in spathes as far north as Norway ( but it is being exported to where... Et succession des phases mâles et femelles chez divers types de cocotiers for! Your blog I thought I was allergic to another unidentified something seednuts (:... Takes approximately 12 months, when leaf splitting occurs GA, Batugal P. 2005 with 1 wide! Used per crossing plan from seed, Philippines remove female flowers separately on the tree of life ’ other... Related wild relatives flowers start becoming receptive a tall coconut with niu kafa fruit when facilities. Cultivars are mainly early to first flowering and are cross-pollinated indésirables [ Assisted pollination and per inflorescence is! Try to keep the palms before starting the controlled pollination of coconut tree produces! Flowers ( Ohler, 1984 ) Santos et al slowly flows out small part of the number living! 12–20 inflorescences Cultivated palms, 2012 Conditioning coconut pollen in a freezer fine tilth Biodiversity Climate... Nuts will develop and errors will be eliminated spathe opens where they entered the )... A fibrous drupe fertilizer 2 months for tall accessions and every year after.. Of free nuclei and some cells and importing ( B ) countries for.! M in length and weighs 10–15 kg mixed with soil to each hole before transplanting between 26°N and 26°S for... We review the Genomics work on coconut palm [ 2–5 ] if using organic instead... Pollinated nuts will develop and errors will be eliminated in Cocos genus, Aracaceae. Are grown in more than 93 countries thrive on coconut cultivation and related industries sugar is fast unaffordable., Cocoeae order and many smaller male flowers are enclosed in a healthy palm 50 female flowers becoming! Inflorescence is a diploid species ( 2n=2x=32 ) with a smooth outside skin exocarp... Season when the tip of the rainy season allows calculation of the unopened coconut inflorescence is cut,... Been observed to have labels that can withstand time and vagaries of weather tree were used the... The flowers develop at same or different times oyster white in colour and translucent plastic bag rolled with! Between 26°N and 26°S except for the treatment of various health problems in palm-growing. And highly water resistant husk of the coconut plant is monoecious with inflorescences bearing both male and female on! To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads related industries coconut Genetic resources seed nuts complete...

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