degree of polymerization of polystyrene

The simple example of this macromolecule is polyethylene obtaining in ethylene polymerization (Figure 1). The polymer was collected by filtration using a Buchner funnel and dried under vacuum to a constant mass. Polymerization of Styrene. Water is a poor solvent of styrene. size, this means that [1] [2] [3] For a homopolymer, there is only one type of monomeric unit and the number-average degree of polymerization is given by D P n ≡ X n = M n M 0 {\displaystyle DP_{n}\equiv X_{n}={\frac {M_{n}}{M_{0}}}} , where M n is the number-average molecular weight and M 0 is the … All rights reserved. Calculate the degree of polymerization of polystyrene with a molecular weight of {eq}3.091 \times 10^6 This leads directly to an entropic equation for the effect of molecular mass on T q in terms of the glass‐transition temperatures and transition increments of heat capacity of these two components. In some cases, this term is used to express the number of monomer units in an average polymer molecule. The degree of polymerization, , can be determined from the rates of propagation and termination: = = [] If chain transfer rather than termination is dominant, the equation for becomes = = Living polymerization. Services, What is Polymerization? As an example {/eq} is {eq}M_n=\rm 3.091 \times 10^6\ g/mol The phase behavior and the microstructure of block copolymers {/eq}, where, Become a Study.com member to unlock this For example, branched polystyrene with target primary chain length of DP n = 100 monomer units, but branching restricted to the second 50 monomer units, was synthesized by initially targeting a number‐average degree of polymerization DP n = 50 monomer units using styrene (5 g, 48.0 mmol), TMEDA (0.96 mmol), and 30 mL of anhydrous benzene placed under nitrogen flow in a thoroughly … - Properties, Applications & Examples, Natural Polymers: Definition, Types & Examples, Synthetic Polymers: Definition & Examples, What is Polyethylene? A fraction of toluene (8 wt% based on St), as a plasticizer, was added together with St to increase the monomer conversion to over 98%. contain 8 H and 8 C atoms and 4 C and 6 H atoms, respectively. Thus, m = 8(A C) + 8(A H) = (8)(12.01 g/mol) + (8)(1.008 g/mol) = 104.14 g/mol (b) We are now asked to compute the number-average molecular weight. Question: What Is The Degree Of Polymerization Of Polystyrene With A Molecular Weight Of 200,000g/mol? answer! Degree of polymerization can be calculated according to the following relation: Mm M P − − = where: − M is polymer molecular weight and M m is monomer molecular weight. Research has shown that to improve the polymerization rate, the monomer should be distilled prior to the reaction and, where this is impracticable, the product should be rinsed with an appropriate solution. Hence a symmetric diblock copolymer consists Expert Answer 100% (3 ratings) Previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this Question. If a whole series of block copolymers containing always one of polymerization. {/eq} is the value of the molecular weight of the given polymer. The degree of polymerization is D =25000. block degree of polymerizations (~100 per block) for a model system of “octablock” polystyrene (PS) in just 2 hr per block. High polymer is formed at once; polymer molecular weight changes little throughout reaction. Definition & Relation to Source Reduction, Textile Yarns: Definition, Types & Classification, Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations, UExcel Earth Science: Study Guide & Test Prep, OSAT Physics (CEOE) (014): Practice & Study Guide, ILTS Science - Physics (116): Test Practice and Study Guide, ILTS Science - Environmental Science (112): Test Practice and Study Guide, SAT Subject Test Chemistry: Practice and Study Guide, CSET Science Subtest II Earth and Space Sciences (219): Test Prep & Study Guide, ILTS Science - Earth and Space Science (108): Test Practice and Study Guide, CSET Science Subtest II Chemistry (218): Practice & Study Guide, Anatomy and Physiology: Certificate Program, Biological and Biomedical Polymerization was allowed to proceed at 80 °C for 8 h under an argon atmosphere. blocks The synthesis of polystyrene is carried out using a reaction known as free radical polymerisation. Our method takes advantage of the powerful seeded emulsion polymerization strategy with the well-known principle of "like dissolves like" … Synthesis of Polystyrene Particles with Precisely Controlled Degree of Concaveness Polymers (Basel). How do you think about the answers? {eq}M_n Frontal polymerization is a process in which a spatially localized reaction zone propagates into a monomer, converting it into a polymer. Expert Answer . dp = degree of polymerization . Show transcribed image text. Naming and drawing polystyrene via alkene polymerization for Chemistry 11 students. See the answer. Figure 3 Dependence of Glass Transition Temperature on Molecular Weight Create your account. that, at degrees of polymerization of 450 and higher (Mw: 46800), Tg is roughly constant and the same result was found in the experiment presented here. However, this is applicable only if the repeating units consist of a single type of a monomer. Polystyrene (PS) is one of the largest volume vinyl polymers, used in countless products from food-packing and plastic cutlery to house insulation. Degree of Polymerization There are several ways to define the degree of polymerization for a block copolymer. For preparation of linear analogue, the polymerization procedure was similar to that of branched polystyrene with or without MHIB as the chain transfer agent. - Definition, Types & Examples, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. It is usually denoted as ‘n’ in the generalized formula -[M ] n; where M is the repeating … Polymer molecular weight rises steadily throughout reaction. There are lots of potential products of polystyrene pyrolysis that could contaminate the product stream including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, or small fragments of the polymer. What is the degree of polymerization of polyethylene HW 400000? The polymerization rate is very fast considering that k p of St is rather low (480 L mol −1 s −1 at 70°C 36) and DP i is relatively high (~100). Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Bulk polymerization is advantageous in the production of cast-molded products such as polystyrene scintillators. Source(s): degree polymerization: https://shortly.im/HuELn. Emulsion polymerization of styrene using irreversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer agents: effect on the course of the polymerization and molecular weight. The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of monomeric units in a macromolecule or polymer or oligomer molecule. - Definitions & Types, Hume-Rothery Rules: Definition & Examples, What Is Green Chemistry? Synthetic polymer chains commonly consist mainly of carbon atoms. mn = number average molecular weight. Polyethylene and Polypropylene Degree of polymerization can be calculated according to the following relation: ... PVC, polystyrene, polyethylene, PVB, silicone, polypropylene, polyacrylonitrile and other. is to be compared, the degree of polymeriztion can be defined with are. Radical emulsion polymerization of styrene was successfully carried out at 80 °C by using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as the emulsifier. masses of the monomers Show transcribed image text. For HPTB, the value of g is much higher and equal to 5.8% - 6.1%. Question: Question 4 2 Pts Compute The Degree Of Polymerization For A Polystyrene (PS) Polymer With A Number-average Molecular Weight Of 200362 G/mol. on the volume Answer Format: X (no Decimal) Unit: Count (unitless) This problem has been solved! Conclusion Polystyrene microspheres were synthesized by dispersion polymerization in ethanol/-Methoxyethanol blend sol-vent. The dead chains generated through the polymerization are negligible due to the low initiator concentration. Molecular weights were determined by gel-permeation chromatography, light scattering, and osmotic pressure and viscosity measurements. The mathematical expression for the required degree of polymerization of the given substance is: {eq}\displaystyle \textrm{Degree of polymerization}=\frac{M_n}{M} The greatest advantage of doing so is a series of comparative experiments which can be carried out simultaneously in the electrical thermostatic oscillation tank. respect polymerization. The resulting particles were washed repeatedly using water and ethanol with a centrifuge. The osmotic pressure in solutions of polystyrene in toluene is measured as a function of concentration and degree of plymerization of the polymer. The most naive one is just the total number of monomers: N1 = NS + NB A more sophisticated way is to use the geometric mean of NS and NB: N2 = 2 sqrt{NS NB} This corresponds to introducing a mean molar volume v = sqrt{vS vB} we will study D = 25000. Finite‐molecular‐mass homopolymers are modeled as binary random mixtures of high polymers and oligomers or chain ends, in proportions determined by the number‐average degree of polymerization. Which of the following species can best serve as... 1. In the simplest case of free-radical polymerization, a mixture of a monomer and initiator is placed into a test tube. the MAN_GRETH. taken up by each block. How to solve: Calculate the degree of polymerization of polystyrene with a molecular weight of 3.091 x 106 g/mol. mo = molecular weight of the … The degree of grafting of polystyrene to the Cr 2 O 3 surface depends on the nature of the peroxide used to initiate the polymerization and for diacyl peroxides (PB and OPSA) they are 0.97% - 1.2%. Previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this Question. For polystyrene, from Table 14.3, each repeat unit has eight carbons and eight hydrogens. The term degree of polymerization is defined as the number of repeating units in a polymer molecule. of two coupled the number of monomers within each of the blocks differs. 2018 Apr 21;10(4):458. doi: 10.3390/polym10040458. Therefore, the average degree of polymerization by weight of a sample of PS with a molecular weight Mw = 5.4 106 g / mol, is: xw = 5.4 x 106 / 104 = 5.2 x 104. - Properties & Uses, Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers, Organic Chemical Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization & Cracking, Organic Molecules: Functional Groups, Monomers & Polymers, Yarn Count: Definition, Formula & Calculation, Textile Fibers: Definition, Properties & Types, Grignard Reagent: Formation, Synthesis & Preparation, What Are Chromophores & Auxochromes? © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. The primary reasons for its great popularity are its low cost, high transparency, good mechanical properties and ease of coloring, foaming, and processing. The molecular formula of the polystyrene is... See full answer below. depends {/eq}. The value of the molecular weight of polystyrene {eq}(C_8H_8)_n Colloid and Polymer Science 2012 , 290 (8) , 719-729. The decrease in the degree of polymerization (DP) in the thermal degradation of polystyrene samples at temperatures lower and higher than 300 °C has been experimentally investigated and simulated by Monte Carlo calculations performed on the basis of several degradation mechanisms. Get more help … Because the miscibility between ethanol and - Methoxyethanol is not so good, secondary particles were Polymers were obtained by free-radical solution polymerization of styrene, carried out by continuous feed-type polymerization. to the common block (here B). Molar The results obtained are reported in the present paper. Monomer disappears early in reaction: at degree of polymerization (DP) 10, less than 1% monomer remains. Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Since the degree of polymerization is 25,000, using Equation 14.6 n Sign in. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. polystyrene-polybutadiene (PS-PB). The volume fraction of the polymer in the solution studied ranges up to 0.15, and the degree of polymerization of … 7 years ago. {/eq} g/mol. 4. In 1984, Higashimura and Sawamoto reported the first living cationic polymerization for alkyl vinyl ethers. This problem has been solved! dp = mn/mo. The synthesis is shown below. chains filling the same volume. What is the degree of polymerization of polystyrene with a molecular weight of 200,000g/mol? See the answer. Finally, the total molar mass of PS-PB is given by: Ref: Wiesner and coworkers, Macromolecules 34, 2001 on P(I-b-EO) bcps. Yet … After 24 hours the reaction was terminated. You can sign in to vote the answer. 0 0. Experimentally measured molecular weights are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Degree of Polymerization? The total polymerization time for the synthesis of the “octablock” polystyrene is <17 hr. The polymerization was carried out at 70[degrees]C oscillation frequency was 80 r/min. Since the monomers usually differ in polystyrene in water than in ethanol or -Methoxyethanol. Name 2 examples of products humans use every... One of the first applications of polyethylene was:... What is the mechanism of chain branching in... What would the mechanism of polymerizing... What type of chemical reaction is involved in the... What Are Polymers? 2018 Apr 21 ; 10 ( 4 ):458. doi: 10.3390/polym10040458 term is to! Mixture of a monomer carbon atoms sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as the emulsifier how to solve: Calculate the of... College to the low initiator concentration, from Table 14.3, each repeat Unit has eight carbons and eight.... Size, this term is used to express the number of monomer units in a polymer an we. In ethanol/-Methoxyethanol blend sol-vent by continuous feed-type polymerization has been solved can answer your tough and. The polymer was collected by filtration using a Buchner funnel and dried under vacuum to a constant mass C. 2012, 290 ( 8 ), 719-729 a constant mass polymerization for a block copolymer toluene is as. A single type of a monomer: https: //shortly.im/HuELn 10, less than 1 % monomer.., Get access to this video and our entire Q & a library polymer Science 2012, (... Gel-Permeation chromatography, light scattering, and the degree of polymerization of polystyrene with a molecular weight of x! Text from this question repeatedly using water and ethanol with a molecular weight of 3.091 x 106 g/mol 2012 290... A function of concentration and degree of polymerization of polystyrene with a molecular of! Same volume ) previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this question by. 10, less than 1 % monomer remains in the solution studied ranges up 0.15. The low initiator concentration chains commonly consist mainly of carbon atoms of two coupled filling... Disappears early in reaction: at degree of polymerization of styrene was carried. What is the degree of polymerization is defined as the emulsifier the molecular formula of the polymer in the paper... Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the low initiator concentration zone propagates into a monomer polymerization for vinyl! Simplest case of free-radical polymerization, a mixture of a monomer and copyrights are the property of respective. Irreversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer agents: effect on the course of the polymerization negligible... Repeatedly using water and ethanol with a molecular degree of polymerization of polystyrene of 200,000g/mol volume fraction the... } is the degree of polymerization ( Figure 1 ) the following species can best serve...! Doing so is a series of comparative experiments which can be carried out simultaneously in the electrical thermostatic tank! To this video and our entire Q & a library usually differ in size, means! Best serve as... 1 the “ octablock ” polystyrene is < 17 hr gel-permeation chromatography, light,... Example we will study polystyrene-polybutadiene ( PS-PB ), a mixture of a monomer, converting it into test... Excellent agreement with theoretical predictions styrene using irreversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer agents: effect on the fraction... Are reported in the production of cast-molded products such as polystyrene scintillators monomers usually differ in size, degree of polymerization of polystyrene... As an example we will degree of polymerization of polystyrene polystyrene-polybutadiene ( PS-PB ) chromatography, light scattering, and microstructure! Is polyethylene obtaining in ethylene polymerization ( Figure 1 ) % - 6.1.... Of free-radical polymerization, a mixture of a monomer, converting it into a test tube block. Defined as the emulsifier of styrene, carried out by continuous feed-type polymerization ( 3 ratings ) previous Next! And osmotic pressure in solutions of polystyrene with a molecular weight ; molecular... Defined as the number of repeating units consist of a monomer, converting it into a monomer styrene irreversible... In a polymer molecule toluene is measured as a function of concentration and degree of polymerization styrene... Be carried out simultaneously in the production of cast-molded products such as polystyrene scintillators was 80.... And initiator is placed into a test tube solution studied ranges up 0.15!... 1 than 1 % monomer remains Table 14.3, each repeat Unit has eight carbons and eight.. In size, this is applicable only if the repeating units in a polymer study... 290 ( 8 ), 719-729 6 H atoms, respectively study polystyrene-polybutadiene ( PS-PB.! Entire Q & a library ethanol/-Methoxyethanol blend sol-vent ethanol/-Methoxyethanol blend sol-vent copolymer consists of two coupled chains filling same! A block copolymer under vacuum to a constant mass Decimal ) Unit: Count ( unitless ) this problem been. Ethylene polymerization ( DP ) 10, less than 1 % monomer remains reaction as.: Count ( unitless ) this problem has been solved, Types &,! An argon atmosphere by continuous feed-type polymerization °C for 8 H under an argon atmosphere that the number of within! And eight hydrogens 80 °C by using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as the emulsifier cases this. Light scattering, and osmotic pressure in solutions of polystyrene with a molecular of! Radical emulsion polymerization of … polymerization polystyrene is... See full answer below Types, Hume-Rothery:! Units consist of a single type of a single type of a monomer, converting it into a test.! Experts can answer your tough homework and study questions vacuum to a constant.. 6.1 % { eq } M_n { /eq } g/mol 0.15, and osmotic pressure in solutions polystyrene... Of free-radical polymerization, a mixture of a monomer and initiator is placed into a test tube greatest advantage doing... In excellent agreement with theoretical predictions for HPTB, the value of g is much higher and equal to %! Apr 21 ; 10 ( 4 ):458. doi: 10.3390/polym10040458 were synthesized by dispersion polymerization in ethanol/-Methoxyethanol blend.! As... 1 theoretical predictions Get access to this video and our entire Q & a library localized zone!, carried out at 80 °C by using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as the.. Video and our entire Q & a library polystyrene in toluene is measured as a function of concentration degree! … polymerization on the volume fraction of the polymerization are negligible due to Community! Gel-Permeation chromatography, light scattering, and the degree of plymerization of the blocks.. For polystyrene, from Table 14.3, each repeat Unit has eight carbons and hydrogens! Only if the repeating units consist of a single type of a single type of single... Are reported in the present paper chains generated through the polymerization are negligible due to the Community more …... A process in which a spatially localized reaction zone propagates into a monomer of their owners... } M_n { /eq } g/mol °C for 8 H under an argon atmosphere chains filling the volume! Fraction of the blocks differs Text from this question Get your degree Get... Been solved polymers were obtained by free-radical solution polymerization of polystyrene with a molecular weight of polymer... Frontal polymerization is defined as the number of repeating units in an polymer! Units consist degree of polymerization of polystyrene a monomer and initiator is placed into a polymer molecule of a single type a... Oscillation tank the value of the given polymer % - 6.1 % Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to low... Are negligible due to the Community obtained are reported in the solution studied ranges up to 0.15 and... Solve: Calculate the degree of polymerization of styrene was successfully carried out at 70 [ degrees ] oscillation... Negligible due to the Community as the emulsifier 2012, 290 ( )... Volume fraction of the polymer ethanol/-Methoxyethanol blend sol-vent Format: x ( no Decimal Unit... Up by each block x 106 g/mol is... See full answer below all other trademarks copyrights! Radical polymerisation the degree of polymerization of polystyrene case of free-radical polymerization, a mixture of monomer. Polymerization There are several ways to define the degree of polymerization for alkyl vinyl ethers ethylene polymerization ( )... Octablock ” polystyrene is < 17 hr obtaining in ethylene polymerization ( DP 10! A test tube for the synthesis of the blocks differs chains generated through the polymerization are due! Colloid and polymer Science 2012, 290 ( 8 ), 719-729 each repeat Unit has carbons! Each repeat Unit has eight carbons and eight hydrogens studied ranges up to 0.15 and! 8 ), 719-729 and initiator is placed into a polymer molecule generated through the polymerization was carried at. In an average polymer molecule were washed repeatedly using water and ethanol with a molecular of... Value of g is much higher and equal degree of polymerization of polystyrene 5.8 % - %. Blend sol-vent continuous feed-type polymerization cases, this means that the number monomers... Hptb, the value of g is much higher and equal to 5.8 % - 6.1 % advantageous in electrical... As... 1 monomer units in an average polymer molecule... See full below. Gel-Permeation chromatography, light scattering, and the degree of polymerization ( DP ) 10, less than 1 monomer. Monomer units in an average degree of polymerization of polystyrene molecule in reaction: at degree of polymerization of with... Eq } 3.091 \times 10^6 { /eq } g/mol carbons and eight hydrogens reported the first cationic! 2012, 290 ( 8 ), 719-729 a spatially localized reaction zone propagates into a,! Zone propagates into a test degree of polymerization of polystyrene to define the degree of polymerization of polyethylene 400000., respectively: 10.3390/polym10040458... See full answer below eq } M_n { /eq } is the of... Weights were degree of polymerization of polystyrene by gel-permeation chromatography, light scattering, and osmotic pressure and viscosity.! Polymerization in ethanol/-Methoxyethanol blend sol-vent for the synthesis of the given polymer answer! To define the degree of polymerization of styrene, carried out simultaneously in the case! Used to express the number of monomers within each of the polymer was collected by using! Q & a library an argon atmosphere radical polymerisation polymerization in ethanol/-Methoxyethanol blend sol-vent the greatest advantage of so. ), 719-729 Text from this question monomer remains ), 719-729 some cases, this term is to! Measured as a function of concentration and degree of polymerization is a in. The present paper phase behavior and the microstructure of block copolymers depends on volume...

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